Quattuor novissima cum multis exemplis pulcherrimis que sunt occasio salutis: (Cordiale quattuor novissimorumo )
by Gérard de Vliederhoven (ƒl end of the14th -early15th centuries) and to Dionysius Carthusiensis
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"Accipies tanti doctoris dogmata sancta"-
( ("You will receive the sacred tenets of a great doctor"))
This is the first of several woodcuts known as the "Accipies Woodcut" used by Quentell; depicting St Gregory instructs two scholars, this was used from 1491 to 1495, This is designated as 'A i' or the first woodblock of this he used. cf. Proctor. Bibliographical Essays, pages 1-12.
The Cordiale quattuor novissimorum, is an edification of the "last four things" (death, judgment, hell and heaven.) Most often, and recently, attributed to the ascetic poet Gerhard van de Vliederhoven his origins and circumstances are completely unknown. It is also ascribed to Dionysius the Carthausian, both authors are particularly likely suspects, they were both popular for their works addressing the theological literature of their times. Despite all the ascriptions to different authors, this work played a crucial role in the Dutch reform movement the Modern Devotion, in which piety and moderation are great virtues with regards to Judgement Day.
The Cordiale has had a profound influence on the eschatological thought of the followers of the Devotio moderna. The spiritual life of the Devotio Moderna followers was marked by focus on inner devotions and frequent short periods of meditation, especially before each new activity. The writings of the Devotio Moderna followers such as Gerard of Zutphen and Jan Mombaer, as well as Groote introduced the tradition of "methodical prayer" which arranged exercises day by day and week by week. Groote's On four Kinds of Matter for Meditation included mental imagery, as well as methodical approaches as an element of meditation The Devotio moderna originated in the Netherlands and spread to Germany, northern France, Spain, and possibly Italy. Gerhard Groote, father of the movement, founded the Brethren of the Common Life; after his death, disciples established a house of Augustinian Canons at Windesheim (near Zwolle, Holland). These two communities-the former living in the world, the latter monastic-became the principal exponents of devotio moderna. Several monasteries instituted the common reading of the Cordiale and we know from the chronicler Jean Busch "The chronicle of Windesheim" [died in 1474 or 9] that it was read at the abbey of Windesheim during meals.
The recitation of Cordiale quattuor novissimorum0 is ready made for methods of "methodical prayer" taught by the Devotio Moderna, moreever the Accipies wood cut is a fitting illustration for this devotion and the techniques used for "self projection" into the imagery of a Biblical scene (to participate in the life of Jesus), this significantly influenced the approaches to Christian meditation in the 15th century and thereafter. These methods persist in meditations such as the Spiritual Exercises, which the Jesuits continue to practice.
By 1500 there appeared forty editions of either the Latin or Dutch at Delft, Deventer with Jacobus de Breda and with Paffraed, Haarlem, Gouda, Antwerp etc. no less abroad this copy is one of the Cologne editions which was first printed in 1479.
Goff C 897. IBP 1708. CIH 1080. Schreiber 4094. Schreiber-Heitz 18. Schramm VIII,484.
BSB-Ink G-115; GW 7509 Mutmaßl. Verf.: Gerardus de Vliederhoven. - Mit Exempla. - Bibliogr. Nachweis: Hain/Copinger 5707. C 3975. VK 454. Pell-Pol 5105. IGI 3191. BMC I,277 (IA. 4591).
United States of America Concordia Seminary, Pritzlaff .
Folger Shakespeare Library
Free Library of Philadelphia.
Library of Congress, John Boyd Thacher Collection (2)
The Morgan Library and Museum
Princeton Univ, Huntington Library
Southern Methodist Univ, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library,Yale
Christian spirituality in the Catholic tradition by Jordan Aumann 1985 Ignatius Press.
Proctor. Bibliographical Essays, pages 1-12.The Accipies Woodcut. 1894.
Thomas À Kempis: Notes of a Visit to the Scenes in which His Life was Spent, with Some Account of the Examination of His Relics Sir Francis Richard Cruise, Kegan Paul, Trench & Company, 1887 - Devotio moderna - 332 pages.
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- Quattuor novissima cum multis exemplis pulcherrimis que sunt occasio salutis
- Gérard de Vliederhoven (ƒl end of the14th -early15th centuries) and to Dionysius Carthusiensis
- Accipies Woodcut" used by Quentell; depicting St Gregory instructs two scholars, this was used from 1491 to 1495, This is design
- Quarto. 19 X 14 cm Signatures: a-g⁶ [Lacks leaves g 3.4; GW notes: "In einem Teil der Aufl. fehlt das Doppelbl. g3.4, dessen A
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