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Historical Manuscripts From Donald Heald Rare Books


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Letter signed ("Edward") to architect James Wyatt, concerning repairs and alterations at Kensington Palace, including proposed work on the library
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Letter signed ("Edward") to architect James Wyatt, concerning repairs and alterations at Kensington Palace, including proposed work on the library

By EDWARD Augustus, Duke of Kent (1767-1820)

Kensington Palace, 1809. 6pp., on 3 sheets of paper, each 9 3/4 x 7 3/4 inches. Each sheet inlaid at a later date. Renovating Kensington Palace. In this lengthy letter, the father of Queen Victoria consults architect James Wyatt concerning repairs to Kensington Palace. Wyatt had been previously employed by Edward to renovate Castle Hill Lodge, but here discusses proposed improvements at Kensington Palace, which were "in a very dilapidated state, & really disgraceful." Among the needed repairs he requests were the walls of the footman's waiting room, the installation of bookcases and other renovation in the library and changes to the garden room.

$1750.00

Manuscript vellum document signed by William Penn, granting five hundred acres of land in Pennsylvania to John Dwight
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Manuscript vellum document signed by William Penn, granting five hundred acres of land in Pennsylvania to John Dwight

By PENN, William (1644-1718)

London, 1686. 1p., approximately 10x19 1/4 inches, scalloped top. Signed by Penn on the fold. Red wax seal mostly intact. Framed. A Pennsylvania land grant signed by William Penn, selling 500 acres of land to among the most famous potters of 17th century England. John Dwight of Fulham is listed within the Papers of William Penn as a first purchaser from Middlesex County. Though there is scant information about his property, much is known about Dwight, among the most famous potters of the 17th century. Dwight founded Fulham Pottery in 1672, and was among the earliest, if not the first, to produce porcelain in England. The land, evidently never settled by Dwight, was later conveyed to Jonathan Talbot of Burlington New Jersey by Dwight's heirs. See Pennsylvania Archives, Minute Book G.

$6000.00

Autograph letter signed to Member of Parliament Benjamin Hawes, concerning the Spanish slave market in Sierra Leone and the colony at Liberia
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Autograph letter signed to Member of Parliament Benjamin Hawes, concerning the Spanish slave market in Sierra Leone and the colony at Liberia

By SLAVERY - CRESSON, Elliott (1796-1854)

Philadelphia, 1834. 3pp. Later annotation at head of first page. Scarce letter on the Liberian colonization movement by one of its founders. Writing to Hawes, a member of Parliament and a committee member of the Society for the Extinction of the Slave Trade, Cresson wishes for success in the British anti-slavery action off the coast of Sierra Leone, writing "[I] hope that you may yet enjoy the satisfaction of crushing one of the worst & most unacceptable of the slave markets in existence, that at Gallinas..." After mentioning the travels of the colonial governor of Liberia, he writes: "... I have been gratified to learn from several highly respectable sources, that such a Colony as you propose, located either at the mouth of the Cape Mount River, or even a little more to the Northward, say at Sugaree, & provided with a good supply of trade goods to exchange with the natives, would have a powerful tendency to break up the monopoly now enjoyed by the Spanish Slavers. My letters from Africa state that the demand is so great in Cuba, from the ravages of Cholera among their ill-fed human cattle, as to have rendered the shipments from the Gallinas, during the past year, almost unprecedented. It appears that the benevolent efforts of your Govt. are not likely to extirpate the evil, until commercial & agricultural colonies shall be substituted for cruisers." The letter continues with news from their consul at Liberia, before turning to American politics: "... political affairs engrossing the entire energies of the nation. The excitement is painfully great ... Our military chieftan Jackson, by his acts of unauthorized assumption, has called forth a burst of indignation which cannot subside until we get rid of the offender." The letter concludes with an introduction for Gerard Ralston. Cresson, a noted Philadelphia businessman and philanthropist, was among the most ardent supports of colonization, the movement to relocate former slaves and free African Americans to colonies in Liberia. In 1833, Cresson and the Philadelphia Young Men's Colonization Society, a branch of the American Colonization Society, founded Port Cresson in Liberia. However the colony was attacked in 1835 by Bassa tribesmen, incited by Spanish slave traders, and destroyed.

$2500.00

Autograph letter signed to Member of Parliament Benjamin Hawes, sending him the proposed resolution to establish the British African Colonization Society, and on William Lloyd Garrison's opposition to the colonization movement
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Autograph letter signed to Member of Parliament Benjamin Hawes, sending him the proposed resolution to establish the British African Colonization Society, and on William Lloyd Garrison's opposition to the colonization movement

By CRESSON, Elliott (1796-1854)

[England, 1833. 3pp. Scarce letter on the Liberian colonization movement by one of its founders. The letter begins with the 2-page text of a resolution to establish the British African Colonization Society: " ... that Colonies composed of fare settlers of African race established on judicious principles on the Coast of Africa appear calculated beyond any other plan to put an effectual stop to the slave trade ... Resolved that a Society be formed to be called the British African Colonization Society and that is objects be to cooperate with the American Colonization Society and with the several missionaries and other religious and charitable societies in Geat Britain and the United States of America, in such measures as may promote the total abolition of the slave trade, and the establishment of Christianity and Civilization among the Natives of Africa chiefly by the employment of Free Persons of African birth or descent..." The proposed Society was to be established under the patronage of the Duke of Sussex. In the letter which follows, Cresson writes of William Lloyd Garrison's opposition to the colonization movement: " ... I send the list of officers as far as accepted, several others have not yet answered, but I trust we shall present a bold front. I have just heard thro his Chaplain from the Duke. Garrison has written to poison his mind and probably will annoy our meeting. I trust that as the notice has been so short, our friends will bring many with them ... My letter to the Times in answer to Garrison they have not yet noticed, so that it will be put in the Globe whose Editor has offered it a place in his columns..." Cresson, a noted Philadelphia businessman and philanthropist, was among the most ardent supports of colonization, the movement to relocate former slaves and free African Americans to colonies in Liberia. In 1832, he travelled to England to promote international support for the movement. The following year, Cresson and the Philadelphia Young Men's Colonization Society, a branch of the American Colonization Society, founded Port Cresson in Liberia. However the colony was attacked in 1835 by Bassa tribesmen, incited by Spanish slave traders, and destroyed. Although initially in favor of colonization, William Lloyd Garrison would change his mind decrying the efforts of the American Colonization Society as a perpetuation of slavery. For Garrison's 28 June 1833 letter to the Duke of Sussex, referenced above, see The Letters of William Lloyd Garrison, I:107.

$3000.00

Autograph letter signed, to Benjamin Hawes, a lengthy letter concerning the abolition of slavery in the West Indies and the conversion of plantation slave labor into a free labor system
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Autograph letter signed, to Benjamin Hawes, a lengthy letter concerning the abolition of slavery in the West Indies and the conversion of plantation slave labor into a free labor system

By SLAVERY - CLARKSON, Thomas (1760-1846)

Ipswich, 1842. 9pp. Early annotation at the top right corner. An incredible content 9-page letter about the transition from slavery to free labor in the West Indies: "... you cannot force these to labour by the whip, as they are now free Men ..." With the passage of the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833, Great Britain ended slavery in the West Indies. In the years following Emancipation, the former slaves were indentured to their former masters before moving to a wage labor system. However, this period saw an economic decline in the region: sugar production drastically slumped, the price of sugar surged and little of the £20 million awarded to the West Indian planters under the Abolition Act was re-invested in the West Indies. The economic woes prompted a Parliamentary investigation. The present letter, written by Thomas Clarkson (1760-1846) the father of the British abolitionist movement, was written to a then sitting member of Parliament, Benjamin Hawes, a young but influential Whig politician. The lengthy letter begins: "I have not the honor of knowing you personally, but only as an upright member of Parliament, and as such I take the Liberty of addressing you, knowing that you are now sitting as a member of a parliamentary committee for inquiring into West India concerns, as they relate to difficulties or impediments which may stand in the way of a fair remuneration to the planters in the cultivation of their estates. This question, Sir, upon which you were called to deliberate, is of immense importance; and it will require the strictest impartiality, both towards the interests of the Masters and of the Servants to develop it, so as to come to a satisfactory conclusion; for if you take the side of the servants unduly against their masters you may become the means of enraging the former to make such exorbitant demands in the shape of wages, as to make it impossible for the latter to cultivate their Estates; and if, on the other hand, you take the side of the Planters unduly against their Servants, so that their wages will not enable them to live, the servants will refuse to work, and thus the Estates again will go uncultivated; and you cannot force these to labour by the whip, as they are now free Men." Clarkson continues by arguing against the blatant racism brought forth by the advocates of the planters to the committee: "... the Negroes of the present day are not the sort of People here described. Their behaviour ever since the day of their Emancipation has been in general most exemplary and laudable. They have been moral, industrious, orderly and well disposed. Crime has so diminished amongst them, that the gaols are frequently quite empty ... You are aware, Sir, that in the days of Slavery nothing would exceed the vile management of a West India Estate. Negroes were obliged to carry manure in baskets on their heads to a plantation perhaps to a distance of a mile or more. Would not such practice be laughed at in England when a single mule and cart would have done three times the work?..." The letter continues with various arguments to prove that the economic troubles of the West Indian plantations were the result of mismanagement and not the freed slaves.

$12000.00

[Manuscript Document Signed by John P. Sarpy Testifying to the Dispersal of the Estate of Henry Fraeb and the Difficulty of Collecting Money from Famed Mountain Man Jim Bridger]
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[Manuscript Document Signed by John P. Sarpy Testifying to the Dispersal of the Estate of Henry Fraeb and the Difficulty of Collecting Money from Famed Mountain Man Jim Bridger]

By [BRIDGER, JIM]: [SARPY, JOHN]: [FUR TRADE]

St. Louis. June 20, 1843. [1]pp., docketed on verso. Folio. Old fold lines; some separation at folds, a few repaired with older archival tape. Quite clean and bright. Good. Jim Bridger's Bad Debts A remarkable window into the business dealings of famed mountain man Jim Bridger, this signed manuscript affidavit of John P. Sarpy, testifies to his actions on behalf of the estate of fellow fur trader Henry Fraeb, who was killed by Indians in the Rocky Mountains. Sarpy, who was a partner in the major firm Pierre Chouteau &. Co., had worked closely with Fraeb and knew him well. In his affidavit he writes about the Chouteau Company's concerns about Jim Bridger, Fraeb's partner at the time of his demise, and the difficulty of getting Bridger to pay his debts. Dated at St. Louis, Sarpy's affidavit says that "on the 8th day of August last he was appointed...administrator of the estate of Henry Fraeb then lately deceased. Said Fraeb had been a trader in the mountains, & was at the time of his death in partnership with a man of the name of James Bridger, & said Bridger & Fraeb were indebted to the firm of Pierre Chouteau Jr. & Co., & it was feared by the members of said firm that unless some one became the administrator of the said Fraeb, the said Bridger might interpose difficulties in the settlement of the accounts existing between them & Bridger & Fraeb. & for the purpose of doing justice to themselves, as well as to the said Fraeb, the said Sarpy applied for letters of administration, which were granted to him as above mentioned. The said Bridger has however since this time been here & has settled in full the accounts existing between the firm of Pierre Chouteau Jr. & Co. & the said Bridger & Fraeb. And the said Sarpy says that no property has come into his hands as the administrator of the said Fraeb, although it may be that the said Fraeb has property in the [mountain?] country or in the hands of James Bridger his former partner." Though he may have been one of the greatest and most beloved mountain men of all time, Jim Bridger was not the best debt in the world, nor did Pierre Chouteau & Co. forget business.

$5500.00

[Autograph Letter, Signed, Written to Joshua Hatheway at Rome, N.Y. By General Jacob Brown Describing the Attack on Sackets Harbor]
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[Autograph Letter, Signed, Written to Joshua Hatheway at Rome, N.Y. By General Jacob Brown Describing the Attack on Sackets Harbor]

By [WAR OF 1812]: BROWN, Jacob, Gen

1813. 1pp. Folio. Old fold lines. Some separation at folds; one tear closed with archival tape. Lightly soiled. Docketed on verso. Good. A dramatic battlefield letter from the Battle of Sackets Harbor, a key action in the War of 1812 An eyewitness account of the second battle of Sackett's Harbor, on the shores of Lake Ontario, written by the commander of the American forces there, Gen. Jacob Brown, to his friend Joshua Hatheway, Quartermaster General and formerly the commander of the defenses at Sackets Harbor. The town, situated near the entrance to the St. Lawrence River at the far eastern end of Lake Ontario and opposite the Canadian town of Kingston, was a vital defensive point for the Americans, challenging British control of the St. Lawrence and the lake, and preventing a British thrust into New York State. If either side could control both sides of the entrace to the St. Lawrence, they could control the Upper Great Lakes. Taking advantage of the American action against York, which drew troops away to the western end of the Lake, the British decided to strike. On the 28th of May, 1813, the British Great Lakes squadron under the command of James Yeo appeared off Sackets Harbor, carrying troops under the command of the Governor-General, Lieut. General George Prevost. Having been forewarned by several men who escaped the Battle of Henderson Bay the previous day, the Americans had some time to reinforce their defenses before the British could attack. The British landed on the 28th, but launched their main attack the next morning. They easily routed the American militia, but the regulars under Brown were able to fight off repeated attacks on their fortifications. Prevost, fearing the arrival of more American troops, ordered a retreat which nearly became a rout. Brown was the hero of the day, and was later rewarded with a comission as brigader general. He must have immediately written this letter describing the action: "Dr. Sir, I received an order some days since from Genl Dearborn to take comm. at this Post. Comd. Chauncey is up the lake. We were this morning attacked as day dawned by Sir George Prevost in person who made good his landing with at least a thousand picked men. Sir James Yeo commanded the fleet after loosing some distinguished officers and of course some gallant men. Our loss is very severe as to the quality of those who have fallen. The enemy left many of their wounded on the Field - but I have no doubt carried off many more. We shall probably be again attacked as Sir George must feel very sore. All I can say is, whatever may be the result we will not be disgraced." A superb battlefield letter reporting on one of the most significant military actions of the War of 1812.

$4750.00

[Archive of Manuscripts from and relating to the Island of Mauritius]
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[Archive of Manuscripts from and relating to the Island of Mauritius]

By [MAURITIUS]

[Mauritius, 1817. Approximately thirty-four items, totaling 75pp. plus several other later or tangential items. Mostly folio and quarto sheets, with a few smaller pieces. Light soiling and wear throughout, heavier to some documents. A superb archive of manuscripts spanning more than fifty years of French colonial history in the southern Indian Ocean, and reflecting the extreme danger of some of France's farthest flung endeavors, especially during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. Among the manuscripts offered are letters signed by Mauritius governor, Malartic, to the governor of Réunion, and an instruction given to the Chevalier de Sanglier sent to Mauritius by the Commander of the French troops in Madagascar, Maurice Auguste, Baron Benyovszky. The earliest item is a letter from the Cesar Gabriel de Choiseul, Duc de Praslin, regarding the precarious social climate in the colony. Dated 1767, he writes, "Messieurs... les revolutions arrives En Cette Colonie dans les affaires de la Compagnie...." At that time, the Compagnie des Indes was handing over control of the island to the French government. There are eight autograph manuscripts signed by Anne Joseph Hippolyte de Maures de Malartic - Governor of the island, "Le Citoyen President," and "Sauveur de la Colonie" - regarding the governing of the islands during the French Revolution. All are dated at the Ile de France from 1793 to 1794. There are also two autograph letters on the printed letterhead of Maurice Auguste, Baron Benyovszky, regarding the supplies needed for his Madagascar colony, including tens of thousands of seeds for coffee and cotton. An officer of the Hapsburg army during the Seven Years' War, Benyovszky later served in the Confederation of Bar and assisted with a rebellion against the King of Poland, for which he was eventually imprisoned in Siberia. He managed to organize a rebellion among the Polish soldiers, commandeer a ship, and sail through the Aleutian islands and on to Taiwan and then Macau, where he befriended French diplomats. He used his new contacts to arrange an audience with Louis XV, to whom he proposed a French colony on Madagascar. King Louis was intrigued enough to agree, and he appointed Benyovszky Governor of the new colony. Two further manuscripts relate to the precarious position in which the French colonists found themselves during the Mauritius campaign of 1809-1811. "Croyez, Messieurs, que Sa Majesté L'Empereur, Saura apprécier ce nouvel acte de Votre dévouement...." Dated at the Ile de France, 31 8bre 1809. There is also a group of letters and other items from 1853 relating to Eugene Leclezio, the man who seems to have assembled all of the manuscripts. It includes several small manuscript maps of the island and the region in the Indian Ocean. There are also several later printed and manuscript items related to the same subjects. The Dutch were the first Europeans to become interested in the island, taking possession in 1598. After exploiting the island's dense forests for a century and introducing the cultivation of sugar cane and cotton, the Dutch abandoned the colony in 1710. The French soon claimed it as "Ile de France," and the island remained under the control of the French East India Company until 1767. During the long war between France and England at the beginning of the 19th century, Mauritius proved to be an important strategic naval base, and as a result the British took charge of the island in 1810, and the Treaty of Paris confirmed official British possession in 1814. It remained an important sugar producing colony, and in the 20th century agricultural production was expanded to include tea, rice, and other produce. A unique and fascinating archive of manuscript material relating to French activities in the Indian Ocean.

$6500.00

[Manuscript log of the U.S.S. Delaware, kept by Robert Storer, during her final cruise home from the Mediterranean]
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[Manuscript log of the U.S.S. Delaware, kept by Robert Storer, during her final cruise home from the Mediterranean]

By [U.S.S. DELAWARE]: Storer, Robert B.

1844. Quarto. 62pp. Original brown cloth. Cloth moderately soiled and stained. Light dampstaining to some of the text. An American Navy Cruise in the Mediterranean Manuscript log book of the U.S.S. Delaware, kept by seaman Robert B. Storer, during the ship's final voyage. The U.S.S. Delaware was launched in October 1820. She spent most of her active duty cruising in the Mediterranean, where she served in the interests of American commerce and diplomacy in that area, though she also spent several years stationed in Brazil, patrolling the coasts of Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina to represent American interests during political unrest in those countries. She began her final voyage to the Mediterranean in February 1843, setting out from Rio de Janeiro. This log covers the last three months of the Delaware's active service, documenting her return voyage from the Mediterranean to Norfolk. She arrived home in March 1844, and was still at the naval yard in 1861, when she was set afire with other U.S. ships in order to keep them from falling into Confederate hands. The log begins with the ship at anchor in Mahon harbor, off Minorca in the Mediterranean. Storer keeps details of provisioning the ship and readying to sail for first 12 days of January. As is standard with ship's logs, he records speeds, winds, and weather conditions, as well as the positioning of the sails. Everyday events such as inspecting the crew or holding "divine service" on Sundays are noted, as well, as are sightings of other ships' sails and exchanging colors with passing vessels. The Delaware sights the coast of Spain and moves into the Atlantic around the third week in January; on February 2, crew member Jacob Lawrence, a marine, dies (though Storer does not say from what), and his funeral service is held the next day, and Lawrence's body is committed to the deep. Also of note, the Delaware investigates a wreck on Feb. 15: "At 7.45 hauled up the courses, hauled down the jib and laid the main and mizen topsails to the mast, and sent a boat to board the wreck. At 8.15 the boat returned from the wreck; discovered her to be the English Hermaphrodite Brig 'Halifax' of 'Halifax,' loaded with lumber, water logged and foremast sawed off, nothing living on board." The rest of the voyage is uneventful and relatively smooth, and the Delaware sights the Cape Henry light house on March 4th. The last few days are recorded as the ship is anchored at Hampton Roads, including a salute to the passing of former Secretary of the Navy, Thomas Gilmer, who died on February 28th.

$3250.00

[Manuscript letter signed, from Lausat, the French Colonial Prefect of Louisiana, to Captain Guillermo Duparc, Commandant of the Point Coupee Post, informing him of the Spanish retrocession of Louisiana to the French, and instructing him to take the necessary measures to exert control over his parish]
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[Manuscript letter signed, from Lausat, the French Colonial Prefect of Louisiana, to Captain Guillermo Duparc, Commandant of the Point Coupee Post, informing him of the Spanish retrocession of Louisiana to the French, and instructing him to take the necessary measures to exert control over his parish]

By LOUISIANA PURCHASE - Pierre Clément de LAUSSAT

New Orleans, 1803. [1]p. letter on a folded folio sheet, with engraved scene entitled "Republique Francaise" at the top of the first page. A few manuscript notes and calculations on the second and fourth pages. Old folds. [With:] [Printed invitation, sent by the French Colonial Prefect of Louisiana, Laussat, for a gala in honor of the Spanish Commander in Louisiana, and in anticipation of handing the Louisiana Territory over to the United States]. December 11, 1803 [19 Frimaire an XII]. [1]p., printed on a folded quarto sheet, addressed in manuscript on the fourth page. The pair in a half morocco clamshell case, cloth chemises. Making the Louisiana Purchase happen, and an invitation to the ball in honor of the transfer of Louisiana. A remarkable pair of documents, announcing to a local French commander the completion of the transfer of Louisiana from Spanish to French control, and inviting him to an upcoming gala in honor of the local Spanish commander and the forthcoming transfer of the Louisiana Territory to the United States. The letter and invitation are both addressed to Captain Guillermo Duparc, Commandant of the Point Coupee military outpost, just northwest of Baton Rouge. Pierre Clément de Laussat, the last French Colonial Prefect of Louisiana, arrived there in late March, 1803, just a month before the Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed in Paris (on April 30). Spain had ceded Louisiana to the French in the Treaty of San Ildefonso of 1800, though the provisions of the treaty had remained a secret; his immediate responsibility was to oversee the transfer from Spain to France. Laussat had been hearing rumors since his arrival of a potential sale of Louisiana from France to the Americans, and those rumors were officially confirmed to him in August. In May, 1803, the Spanish commanders of Louisiana, including the Marquis de Casa Calvo, announced the forthcoming retrocession of Louisiana from Spanish to French control, a process that was formally completed on November 30, 1803. In the present letter, dated just nine days after the completion of the Spanish retrocession, Laussat writes Duparc, sending him (in translation from the French) "the order which I have issued concerning taking possession of the French Republic of Louisiana in your district. I reached an agreement on it, in advance, with the Commissioners of S.M.C. [Sa Majeste Catholique, i.e. King Charles IV of Spain] dated the 12th of Frimaire [December 4, 1803]." Laussat writes that, along with the proclamation, he is sending Duparc various decrees regarding the circumstances of French control and asks him to redouble his efforts for tranquility, peace, and order in his district. The proclamation and decrees mentioned by Laussat are not present with this letter. The manuscript letter is on Laussat's official letterhead, with the seal of the French Republic and the engraved text "Marine. Coloniea. Louisiane." Interestingly, Laussat has annotated the pre-printed portion of the letter, changing his title from "Colonial Prefect of Louisiana" to "Colonial Prefect Commissioner of the French Government," reflecting the new political situation after the Spanish hand-over of the territory to the French just nine days earlier. The printed invitation is also addressed to M. Duparc, and is very rare, located by Jumonville in only one other copy, at the Historic New Orleans Collection. Dated December 11, 1803, it invites Duparc to a soiree hosted by Laussat on "next Thursday," the 15th of December. The party is being held to commemorate the transfer of Louisiana from Spanish to French control, and its impending transfer to the United States. More specifically the party is in honor of the Spanish commander, the Marquis de Casa-Calvo, Brigadier of the Spanish armies, in thanks for the Spaniards' efforts in recent days, and as a sign of the union and friendship between the Spanish and French governments. On December 20, 1803, just eleven days after writing this letter and five days after his gala in honor of Casa-Calvo, Laussat presided over the ceremony officially transferring the Louisiana Territory to the United States. Laussat's manuscript letter and printed invitation of Captain Duparc are rare survivals, and fascinating evidence of the political, military, and social aspects of events in Louisiana in 1803, from the Spanish transfer of control of the territory to France, to the official completion of the Louisiana Purchase by the United States. Jumonville 86 (printed invitation).

$60000.00

Jowaki [manuscript title of an album of watercolours and pen-and-ink sketches by Radford recording the Jowaki Expedition in Kohat Pass]
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Jowaki [manuscript title of an album of watercolours and pen-and-ink sketches by Radford recording the Jowaki Expedition in Kohat Pass]

By (PAKISTAN, Jowaki Expedition) - Lt. Oswald C. RADFORD, 3rd Sikh Infantry

[Kohat Pass, Pakistan, 1878. Oblong quarto. (9 3/4 x 12 inches). Watercolour title accomplished directly on the recto of the first album leaf, 28 watercolours (mostly on sheets of drawing paper mounted into the album, though others drawn directly on the album leaves), 7 mounted pen-and-ink sketches on thin paper (including rough studies for some of the watercolours), 5 watercolour vignettes incorporating various date headings, all of the above recto and verso on 23 album card leaves. Manuscript descriptions and captions by Radford throughout, as well as related mounted newspaper clippings. Contemporary green cloth album, covers decoratively blocked in gilt, blind and black (worn) Provenance: Mian Hayaud-Din (inscription on pastedown) A unique album of drawings depicting the Jowaki Expedition in the Kohat Pass preceding the Second Afghan War, recorded by an eyewitness Lt. Oswald Radford of the 3rd Sikh Infantry: a pictorial relic of The Great Game. In the early 1870s, the British colonial government in India paid the Jowaki Afridi a tribute payment to guard the Kohat Pass. The Jowaki Afridi were the most powerful Pathan tribe in the mountainous borderland northwest frontier province between present-day Pakistan and Peshawar. In 1875, a road was proposed to run through the pass, which was objected to by the local tribes. To further complicate the situation, the amount of the tribute payment was reduced in 1877, igniting conflict. The Jowaki cut the British telegraph lines and raided across the border. A force of 1500 troops of the Punjab Frontier Force were dispatched under Colonel Frederic David Mocatta in retaliation, joined shortly thereafter by a larger force under Brigadier General Charles Patton Keyes. The present album was created by Lt. Oswald Radford, an officer in the 3rd Sikh Infantry who served on the expedition. Leaving Kohat on 9 November, Radford's column advanced to the Paiya Valley, meeting little resistance. After serveral skirmishes, the force moved to the Shindai Valley, pushing back a Jowaki force assembled there. By the first of December, the British force had taken the Jowaki stronghold of Jummu and chased their enemy though the Naru Khula gorge before returning to Jummu in January of 1878. At the end of January 1878, fifty head men of the Jowaki tribe met with the British commanders in the Paiah Valley (several depicted in the final watercolour in this album), though the British conditions for peace were refused. Although the British force was able to push back the Jowaki and inflicted considerable damage on their villages and crops, the Jowaki were not resoundingly defeated and continued guerrilla assaults, though the building of the disputed road continued. Radford's watercolours show both the rugged mountainous landscape and its beautiful valleys, interspersed with images of camp life and portraits of the combatants. Within the album is a manuscript account of the expedition, as well as period newspaper accounts which augment the contextualizing of the images. Many of the pen-and-ink sketches are preliminary to the watercolours, and were no doubt done on the spot, with the more accomplished mounted watercolours drawn in camp. The watercolours comprise (titled as per Radford's captions, supplied titles in brackets): 1) Jowaki [album title spelled out using swords and guns against a trench, with two soldiers in the foreground and a mountain range in the background]. 9 3/4 x 11 3/4 inches. 2) Gandiali Ravine. 8 3/4 x 11 3/8 inches. Mounted. 3-4) Halt at the Summit of the Tortang Pass, Turki Valley / Shindai Valley [two views, each mounted to same album leaf]. Each 3 3/8 x 9 3/4 inches. Mounted. 5-6) Paiah Valley / Amateur Reaping [two views on one album leaf]. Each approximately 4 x 10 inches. 7-9) [3 small watercolours, each mounted to the same album leaf, two depicting Khattak horseman and one standing]. 3 1/2 x 5 3/8 inches to 9 1/2 x 5 inches. Mounted. 10-11) Kohat Valley / Turki Valley [two views on one album leaf]. Each approximately 4 1/4 x 11 1/4 inches. The first mounted. 12-16) [5 small watercolours, each mounted to the same album leaf, depicting camp life and Jowakis, including two watercolours recto and verso of same sheet]. Approximately 5 1/2 x 3 1/2 inches (or the reverse). Mounted. 17) Khattak Dance, Turki. 8 1/4 x 11 1/4 inches 18) The Last Ridge [approaching Jammu]. 6 1/2 x 10 inches. Mounted. 19) Shai Khel, Jammu. 6 1/2 x 10 inches. Mounted. 20) Paiah Valley. 8 1/4 x 11 1/4 inches. Mounted. 21) [Unidentfied mountain range, panorama on two sheets across two album pages]. 3 x 17 inches. Mounted. 22) [Unidentified valley with fire burning]. Approximately 8 x 10 inches. 23) Entrance to Naru Khula. Approximately 8 x 10 inches. 24) Gorge looking back. 10 3/4 x 8 inches. Mounted. 25) Gorge in middle of Naru Khula. 10 1/2 x 9 1/2 inches. 26) Commencement of Retirement from Jummoo Valley. 10 1/2 x 9 3/4 inches. 27) 3rd Sikh Mess, Turki. 7 3/4 x 11 inches. Mounted. 28) [Portrait of Akbar Khan of Hangu]. 8 x 5 1/2 inches. Mounted. 29) [Group portrait of Akbar Khan, Malik Jan and Mahomed Khan]. 9 5/8 x 8 inches. Mounted. The album is from the collection of Mian Hayaud-Din, a general staff officer for the British who served with highest distinction in India and Burma before and after World War II. The album was acquired by him prior to 1940. A unique pictorial record of a British colonial military conflict in among the most rugged regions encompassed by The Great Game. Cf. James Grant, Recent British Battles on Land and Sea (London, 1884), pp. 9-10, quoting Radford's account of the expedition.

$25000.00

Autograph manuscript signed, the complete four stanzas of America
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Autograph manuscript signed, the complete four stanzas of America

By SMITH, Samuel Francis (1808-1895)

1892. 2pp., written on the same side of folded sheet of ruled paper, measuring 8 x 9 7/8 inches overall. Titled at the head of the first page, signed "S.F. Smith" and dated below the final verse. [With:] Cabinet card portrait photograph, signed by Smith on recto and additionally signed on verso and inscribed with the first stanza of America and dated 4 October 1892. [And with:] An unsigned portrait photograph. Matted. My country, 'tis of thee, / Sweet land of liberty, / of thee I sing; / Land where my father's died, / Land of the Pilgrim's pride, / From every mountain side / Let freedom ring... Samuel Francis Smith wrote the lyrics to "My Country 'Tis of Thee" in 1831, while a student at the Andover Theological Seminary in Andover, Massachusetts. His friend Lowell Mason had asked him to translate the lyrics in a German school songbook or to write new lyrics. A melody in Muzio Clementi's Symphony No. 3 caught his attention. Rather than translating the lyrics from German, Smith wrote his own American patriotic hymn to the melody, completing the lyrics in thirty minutes. Smith gave Mason the lyrics he had written and the song was first performed in public on July 4, 1831, at a children's Independence Day celebration at Park Street Church in Boston and was first published the following year.

$4000.00

Principles and observations applied to the manufacture and inspection of pot and pearl ashes
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Principles and observations applied to the manufacture and inspection of pot and pearl ashes

By TOWNSEND, David (1753-1829)

Boston: Isaiah Thomas & Ebenezer T. Andrews, 1793. 8vo. (8 5/8 x 5 1/4 inches). 48pp. Partially unopened. (Chips to title without loss to text, small clipped portions at head of terminal two leaves without loss to text). Stitched self-wrappers. [With:] Small archive of manuscript material relating to Townsend's service as an Inspector of pot ash, including a document signed by John Hancock. Comprised of: 1) Autograph document signed by Samuel Danforth, attesting that he is personally acquainted with Dr. David Townsend and that Townsend "is well acquainted with the principles of Chemistry in general and that from his particular application, he is well qualified to execute the business of a Assay of Pot & Pearl Ashes." Boston, 16 June 1791. 1 p. 2) Manuscript document signed by Justice of the Peace Samuel Bannett, attesting that Dr. David Townsend has "made oath that he would faithfully perform the duties of the Office of Inspector of Pot Ashes & Pearl Ashes to which he is appointed..." 16 July 1791. 1 p., lower blank portion of sheet clipped. 3) Manuscript document signed by John Hancock, as Governor of Massachusetts, an act concerning the fees for inspecting pot and pearl ashes. Boston, 26 March 1793. 1 1/4 pp. 4) Manuscript contemporary true copy of the above by John Avery Jr. 5) Manuscript document signed by N. Goodale, Clerk of the District of Massachusetts, acknowledging that David Townsend has registered the title of his "Principles and observations applied to the manufacture and inspection of pot and pearl ashes". 10 November [1793]. 1p. Paper covered wax seal. 6) Autograph letter signed from Samuel Eliot to David Townsend, thanking him for sending a copy of his pamphlet "which as far as I can judge must be greatly serviceable to the manufacturing & commercial interests of the State..." 29 May 1796. 1 p. Scarce early American work on the manufacture of potash with an interesting related archive of manuscript material concerning the author, including a document signed by John Hancock. In the mid-18th century, the manufacture of potash became a burgeoning cottage industry. Potash, a mineral rich substance derived from leeching, boiling and distilling burned out ashes from wood and plants, was used extensively in the colonies to make soap, glass and gunpowder and was also an important fertilizer. In 1790, the very first U.S. patent was issued to Samuel Hopkins for an improved furnace in manufacturing potash, attesting to its importance. The United States would be the world's leading producer of potash into the mid-19th century. This rare pamphlet by Townsend, the Inspector of Pot and Pearl Ashes for Massachusetts, reviews the various manufacturing processes in the early period. Townsend graduated from Harvard College in 1770 and studied medicine under General Joseph Warren. At the Battle of Bunker Hill, he accompanied Warren as surgeon in Bunner's regiment. During the war, he was commissioned surgeon to the sixth regiment of foot, commanded by Colonel Asa Whitcomb and later was senior surgeon to the General Hospital, Northern department. He served with the Continental army under Washington during the harsh winter at Valley Forge. On October 9, 1781, he was made surgeon-general of the hospital department. For many years and up to the time of death he was physician in charge of the U. S. Marine Hospital in Chelsea, Massachusetts. Dr. Townsend was an active member of the Massachusetts Medical Society from 1785 to 1824, when he retired. Following the Revolution, Townsend was one of the charter members of the Society of the Cincinnati, being secretary of the Massachusetts chapter from 1817 to 1821, vice-president from 1821 to 1825 and president from 1825 to 1829. Evans 26270; Rink, Technical Americana 3169; Sabin 96377.

$4250.00

Autograph letter signed to "The Governor Chief Factors & Chief Traders Northern Department'
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Autograph letter signed to "The Governor Chief Factors & Chief Traders Northern Department'

By HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY - Alexander STEWART (c.1780-1840)

Fort Chipewyan [Athabasca, Alberta, Canada], 1827. 5 1/2 pp., legal folio (12 1/2 x 7 7/8 inches). Dampstained, tears at folds, two bifolium, with docket panel on verso of final page "Fort Chipewyan 28th Decr. '27 / Alex Stewart" Provenance: Charles de Volpy ('C.de V.' ink collector's stamp, sale: R. Maresch & Son, 26 May 1982, lot 21) Long and detailed manuscript account of Hudson's Bay Company fur trading in the wilds of Canada. Alexander Stewart, the chief Hudson's Bay Company factor at Fort Chipewyan (present-day Athabasca) here writes a detailed and fascinating "account of the Company's Affairs in this District," in 1827.The Fort, just north of present-day Edmondton, was the main jumping-off point for trapping expeditions into what is now northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories, especially the area around the Great Slave Lake.This was new country for the trappers. Sir John Franklin's second expedition had explored the country in 1825-27, with the help of the HBC, and particularly Peter Dease. In this letter Stewart describes the situation at the end of 1827, noting that they might have lost important ship-board supplies for trading with Native Canadians "had not Mr. C.[hief] t.[rader] Simon McGillivray ... by his judicious management ultimately succeed in getting them here in due time. La Londe the conductor of the craft for this District, I look upon as no longer fit for that duty, having no more command of the men than a common steersman ... I, with the able assistance of Mr. P. W. Dease, whom I found here waiting with the remainder of the Mackenzie's River outfit, made various arrangements and settlements with the Indians ... Both Peace River and Great Slave Lake (in present-day Northwest Territories) outfits with their people left this on the 5th and 6th." Stewart goes on to mention that he had difficulty distributing goods to the natives, as they came in greater numbers than expected, and describes a disease ("chin-cough," i.e. whooping-cough) that has affected the families. He further mentions that non-importation of liquor has not been a problem and continues: "The natives of Fort Chipewyan and Great Slave Lake have been as obedient as could be expected to our orders not to destroy the beaver during the summer season ... The Beaver Indians being more destitute and more in the habit of making their hunt by the Gun ... I have taken the liberty to forward herewith to Mr. C.F. McTavish the requisition for outfit 1828 ... I mean to send off three boats, which I have no doubt contain all the packs that may be made at this place and Seal River ... There are in the district including 4 interpreters 45 men - To take out 3 boats - 21 men / Two loaded canoes - 9 men / Messrs. Smith & Stewarts Canoe - 6 men: 36 men - 9 men left. / Required for summer establishment: Great Slave Lake - 3 men, incl. interpreter / Fort Chipewyan - 3 / Fort Vermilion - 3 / Dunvegon - 3...showing a deficiency of 4...We must recourse to the hiring, if possible, [of] some of our half-breeds or free-men in order to get our returns." Alexander Stewart had originally worked for the North West Company, rising from apprentice (in 1796) to partner (in 1813). At the time of the merger of the North West Company with the Hudson's Bay Company he was based at Little Slave Lake. Stewart was appointed one of the Chief Factor's in the newly merged company, initially based at Fort William (1821-23) and Island Lake (1823-26) before taking over at Fort Chipewyan, where he remained until 1830. He took a furlough in 1830-31, but suffered health problems which led to his retirement in 1833. Peter Warren Dease (1788-1863), whose help Stewart praises in the present letter, would become a chief factor in his own right in the following year. Dease had earlier assisted Franklin during his second expedition in 1825-26, and he went on to gain renown as an Arctic explorer in his own right. In 1836-39, with Thomas Simpson, Dease commanded an expedition which explored the Arctic coast from the mouth of the Mackenzie River to Point Barrow.

$6750.00

Autograph letter signed by Hudson Bay Company factor Donald Ross to the Chief Factor of the Company John Stuart, describing the season's trade and commenting on the Oregon boundary dispute
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Autograph letter signed by Hudson Bay Company factor Donald Ross to the Chief Factor of the Company John Stuart, describing the season's trade and commenting on the Oregon boundary dispute

By HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY - Donald ROSS (1797-1852)

"Norway House" [Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada], 1844. 3pp, plus integral address leaf. Folded sheet. (Short separations at folds, hole from opening costing a few words). Strong content letter between Hudson Bay Company factors on the fur trade and the Oregon Question. Ross writes: "...Our furs, I am happy to see, sold well last winter, with the exception of Beaver, and the quantity sent home was by no means small, yet somehow or other, we cannot manage to make profit nowadays, tho' the trade was never carried on in this country with so little expense; there must be a peg loose somewhere, that is a clear case, but I shall not pretend to say where the leakage is. The trade of this Department for the last outfit is certainly very good ... and as we are now again to hunt beaver without restraint, I expect the current year will produce something even better than the last ... The Columbia too has given large return for the last outfit but its expenses, I fear, will swallow all up, and probably more; our affairs in that quarter, I expect are in a very critical state. The Americans are pouring across the mountains by thousands, and if the Oregon question be not speedily settled, some serious mischief will assuredly arise before long. These grasping Republicans it appears insist on the line of 49 to the sea; if they get that, it will be better to give them the whole, the rest will be of little value to England and will rather be a source of trouble and annoyance than of real benefit to the nation; they have no just claim whatever to any portion of the territory, but John Bull, good honest soul as he is, terrible when his anger is up, allows himself to be cheated and gulled by every body who can manage to blurry and tickle him into good humour. For my own part, I sincerely wish we were well rid of the whole concern, for I strongly fear we shall then suffer the heaviest blow that ever fell on the fur trade..." For much of the first half of the 19th century, Great Britain and the United States had jointly occupied the fur rich Oregon country (known as the Columbia District to the HBC), the northwest coast region west of the continental divide, north of the Columbia River to the 54th parallel. By 1844, however, with America's vision of manifest destiny in full swing, the U.S. laid claim to the region, launching the Fifty-four Forty or Fight campaign. Particularly debated was the area north of the Columbia but south of the 49th parallel (i.e. much of present day Washington State). Ross here argues that if that area were ceded, then the entire region to the 54th parallel might as well be foresaken. Two years later, the Oregon Treaty was signed, setting the boundary between the U.S. and Canada as the 49th parallel.

$2500.00

Manuscript in Ge-ez script on vellum
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Manuscript in Ge-ez script on vellum

By ETHIOPIC MANUSCRIPT

Late 19th century or early 20th century. Quarto in 10s and 12s. 192 vellum leaves: comprised of 2 blank leaves, 3 leaves with later drawings on one side only, 1 leaf with later drawing on recto and 9 lines of red and black text on verso, 180 leaves of text in red and black (20 lines per page, 18 pages with polychrome headpieces), 2 leaves with later text in black only, 4 blank leaves. Red goatskin over wooden boards, elaborately panelled in blind, the panels composed from fillets and decorative rolls with occasional roundels, all surrounding a central panel tooled in blind with a Christian cross made up from fillets, decorative rolls and various small tools, the flat spine divided into three compartments with fillets in blind, the compartments similarly decorated with crossed fillets and roundels, red morocco doublures, elaborately tooled in blind, with small central approximately rectangular panel of dark blue velvet, within a red morocco inner slipcase with integral flaps, the exterior elaborately tooled in blind with tools that were also employed on the binding, and attached by straps to an outer carrying case of red morocco, this case with some stitched decoration but also tooled in blind with tools that were employed on the binding. Provenance: Unidentified ink-stamp on final page of regular text A beautiful and venerated object, and a reminder of an age before printing. Unlike most books, the signs of wear on this bound manuscript are signs of care rather than neglect. It is usually spurious to talk of the patina of a book, but the tears, scuffs and careful amateur repairs to the exterior carrying case, the darkened area at one end of the inner slipcase and small worm smooth patch of board that is visible on the upper cover of the binding, these are all signs of a work that is esteemed, like the shining brass toe of a statue of a revered saint. The main body of the text appears to be in a single hand, in red and black ink, with occasional abstract headpieces in three or four colours.

$2000.00

An album of original watercolour drawings of Cassowaries, with related manuscript title "Kasuare / Walter Rothschild"
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An album of original watercolour drawings of Cassowaries, with related manuscript title "Kasuare / Walter Rothschild"

By ROTHSCHILD, Lionel Walter, Baron Rothschild (1868-1937) - John Gerrard KEULEMANS (1842-1912, artist)

"London, 1899. Oblong octavo. (8 3/8 x 11 1/4 inches). Black ink calligraphic manuscript title, manuscript map in blue ink of New Guinea, northern extremities of Australia and the surrounding islands, hand-coloured with a related key beneath to show the distribution of the various species and sub-species, 7 plates of pen-and-ink and watercolour drawings of various species of cassowary (the first five plates each with three heads, the sixth plate with two heads and the final plate with a fine full-length study of an adult and a young bird). Loosely inserted is an early manuscript listing (in the same hand as the captioning of the plates and the index to the map) of various species of the birds, with common names and locations. Contemporary brown morocco-backed cloth-covered boards, dark red morocco box Provenance: Otto Fockelmann (of Hamburg, near-contemporary signature in blue ink on title) Pre-publication presentation manuscript with watercolour drawings depicting the 17 species or sub-species of Cassowaries identified by Rothschild in his "Monograph of the genus Casuarius" published in 1900. In December 1900, Walter Rothschild published his seminal work on the cassowary in the Transactions of the Zoological Society (vol.XV, pt.5, pp.109-290), which included exquisite plates by John Gerrard Keulemans. The manuscript title of the present album, however, is dated the year prior. The fine watercolours in the present album, each of which bears close comparison with the finished plates as included in Rothschild's "Monograph of the Genus Casuarius," are the work of fine bird artist John Gerrard Keulemans. Keulemans worked from the live birds housed in Lord Rothschild's private menagerie at Tring and travelled to Germany to sketch the live specimens at the Zoological Gardens of Berlin. This latter fact, allied with Otto Fockelmann's name on the title may provide the most likely explanation for the existence of this unique pre-publication manuscript. Rothschild was scouring the world for any species or sub-species that had escaped his notice. The Fockelmanns were well-known dealers in rare birds, based in Hamburg, and they would have been contacted to ask if they could help, perhaps by Keulemans at Rothschild's request during one of his trips to Germany. Before the publication of the monograph, the original watercolours were the most accurate method of recording the species that Rothschild had already identified, and the present images may, in part, have been produced to allow the Fockelmanns to eliminate them from Rothschild's "shopping list". The Fockelmanns were evidently much taken with the drawings, as it seems likely that they were responsible for its current final form: with a German title, a map with German place names, and a loosely inserted index (with Rothschild's name spelled incorrectly, and notes in German) with additional species which had been identified by Anton Reichenow added in 1913. [With:] ROTHSCHILD, Lionel Walter, Baron Rothschild (1868-1937) - John Gerrard KEULEMANS (1842-1912, artist). A Monograph of the Genus Casuarius . London: 1900. Extract from the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London , vol. XV.-Part 5, pp. 109-290. Quarto (12 x 9 1/2 inches). 24 plates (18 hand-coloured lithographed plates of birds, 2 hand-coloured lithographed maps and 3 photolithographed plates). Period blue buckram, original blue wrappers bound in. For the published work, see: Anker 547; Nissen IVB 796; Wood p.543. For Keulemans life and work, see T. Keulemans & Jan Coldewy, Feathers to Brush The Victorian Bird Artist John Gerrard Keulemans (Epse, The Netherlands & Melbourne, Australia: 1982).

$28000.00

[Original Manuscript Sketchbook of the H.M.S. Challenger Expedition, 1872-1874]
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[Original Manuscript Sketchbook of the H.M.S. Challenger Expedition, 1872-1874]

By [SHEPHARD, Benjamin]

1873. Oblong quarto sketchbook. (9½ x 12½ inches). Thirty-six leaves, including illustrated titlepage and thirty-five ink and watercolor illustrations, all but titlepage in full color. Original printed wrappers, backed in later tape. Inscribed, "William Gurling. H.M.S. Challenger. Sydney. Australia," on front wrapper verso. Covers worn. Some minor soiling internally, but overall clean, bright, and in very good condition, with most tissue guards remaining. The remarkable original watercolor sketchbook of Benjamin Shephard from the historic scientific voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger. In 1968, J. Welles Henderson, collector, historian, and founder of the Philadelphia Maritime Museum, discovered the sketchbook in an antique shop in Boston. He purchased the volume and soon showed it to Harris B. Stewart, an oceanographer and member of the Maritime Museum's Underwater Advisory Board, who agreed that the drawings added "a delightful artistic postscript to the volumes already written about what is still considered the greatest of all oceanographic expeditions" (Stewart and Henderson, p.[3]). In 1972, on the centennial of the Challenger's launch, the Philadelphia Maritime Museum published a facsimile volume of the sketchbook, with an introduction and detailed commentary by Stewart and Henderson accompanying each plate. During their research on the sketchbook, Henderson and Stewart discovered that Benjamin Shephard was a cooper who served during the entire voyage of the H.M.S. Challenger from November 1872 to May 1876. Shephard was born at Brixton in Surrey in 1841, entered the navy in 1862, and died in Australia from tuberculosis in 1874 at the age of 45. "Evidently," Handerson and Stewart write, "he found work not particularly to his liking, as he was promoted and demoted several times during his 25-year career." He paid significant attention to his Challenger sketchbook, however, creating a series of "magnificently done" watercolors that show the work of a skilled and observant amateur. The sketches are all approximately 6 x 9¾ inches, each featuring a view of the ship and framed with a caption-bearing garter. Following the attractive pictorial titlepage, they begin with a fanciful scene of the Challenger dredging the sea floor, with mermaids guiding the net below and bestowing it with shells and an old anchor. Stewart and Henderson note that like the sailors on most oceanographic expeditions, "those aboard the H.M.S. Challenger, although intrigued by the work of the scientists, were more interested in the ports which punctuated the long periods of observations at sea. Thus Shephard, with few exceptions, concentrated on painting not the scientific work at sea but rather the Challenger at her various ports of call." Twenty-five of the watercolors are port or other coastal views, covering Madeira, St. Thomas, Bermuda, Halifax, St. Michael's, St. Vincent, St. Paul's Rocks, Fernando Noronha, Tristan de Cunha, Capetown, Prince Edward Island, Crozet Island, Kerguelen Island, and McDonald Island. Many of these depict other ships and boats, with forts, towns, and the occasional lighthouse in the background. Non-coastal scenes include one of a violent storm in the Gulf of Florida, a particularly attractive view of the ship at full sail "on her way to St. Paul's Rocks," and six sketches of the Challenger sailing, dredging, and firing guns among the Antarctic icebergs. A beautiful and important visual record of what Howgego has called "the most detailed and extensive examination of the world's oceans in the history of exploration. Howgego N5; [Benjamin Shephard]: Challenger Sketchbook B. Shephard's Sketchbook of the H.M.S. Challenger Expedition 1872-1874 Prepared and Edited for Publication by Harris B. Stewart, Jr. and J. Welles Henderson (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Maritime Museum, 1972).

$125000.00