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[Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound.]
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[Buzzards Bay and Vineyard Sound.]

By DES BARRES, JOSEPH FREDERICK WALLET (1721-1824) and SAMUEL HOLLAND

London: J. F. W. Des Barres for The Atlantic Neptune, 1776. Large engraved chart from Des Barres' Atlantic Neptune on two sheets of laid paper, joined, each bearing "J Bates" watermark. 43x31 inches sheet size, nice margins; contemporary hand-color in outline; slightest offsetting, a superior copy. State 4 of 7. Fine chart depicting the waters between New Bedford and Martha's Vineyard. Buzzards Bay and the Vineyard Sound including the Elizabeth Islands and the western half of Martha's Vineyard. Showing much more on-shore information than is typical for a Des Barres chart, there are details of property boundaries, structures, even a road from Menemshaw Pond to Tisbury. Native names throughout remain largely unchanged today. Joseph Des Barres was born in Switzerland in 1721 and educated in Basel before emigrating to England and entering the Royal Military College where he learned engineering and the art of surveying. In 1756, Des Barres was commissioned a Lieutenant in the Royal American Regiment and dispatched to North America. He served in America during the Seven Years War under Colonel Bouquet, Lord Howe and General Amherst, and participated in the Quebec campaign as General Wolfe's engineer. Though Des Barres was responsible for the surveys done of Nova Scotia and the Isle of Sable, the surveying of the coastline of what became the United States was undertaken by Major Samuel Holland, a Dutchman, who joined the British army during the French and Indian War as an engineer, and became ultimately Surveyor General for North America. Holland was in charge of a rather large staff, that included Charles Blaskowitz and George Gauld. They ultimately provided greatly improved charts for the entire coastline and the Gulf of Mexico. All this work was done prior to the Revolution, which necessarily brought the surveys to an end. The publishing supervised by Des Barres continued throughout the war years. Des Barres compiled and edited the atlas, maintaining a high standard throughout. His primary motive seems to have been the navigational usefulness of the charts. He clearly envisioned a navigator's needs in approaching a shoreline. The Atlantic Neptune was the first new survey of American coastlines in a century, and the need was very great. The charts were plagiarized for the next thirty or forty years. Des Barres also had a flare for making charts aesthetically appealing, so that they are invariably handsome as well as unfailingly interesting. Stevens 88D; John Carter Brown Library Charting the East Coast of North America, The Atlantic Neptune (Providence: 1972); Robert Lingel 'The Atlantic Neptune' in the Bulletin of the New York Public Library, July 1936, pp.571-603; Augustus P. Loring 'The Atlantic Neptune' in American Maritime Prints (New Bedford: 1985).

$28500.00

Isthmus of Nova Scotia
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Isthmus of Nova Scotia

By DES BARRES, J.F.W. (1721-1824)

London: Published by J.F.W. Des Barres in 'The Atlantic Neptune', 1780. Engraved and etched map with roulette work and aquatint, with original color, 6th state of six. Watermarked "JBates" and countermarked "JB". Some off-setting and soiling. A magnificent large scale map of the isthmus that bridges modern-day Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, featuring superlative detail applied with the greatest artistic virtuousity A monumental map of what is now the Isthmus of Chignecto, which connects Nova Scotia to the mainland. This land bridge had been fiercely contested between the British and French. and many battles were fought there during the 18th century. Fort Beausèjour at the head of the Bay of Fundy had become Fort Cumberland in 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, and Fort Cumberland had repulsed an attack by American sympathisers in 1776. This final state of Des Barres' chart includes a great deal of topographical detail and many settlements in the region, shown as rectangular plots. There are of course many soundings and the title cartouche includes some interesting navigational information: " Chignecto, the North East Branch of the Bay of Fundy is Navigable up to Cumberland, Petcudiac, &c. Tides flow here with great rapidity and rise at Equinoctial Times from 60 to 70 feet perpendicular. By means of these huigh Tides, the Bason of Mines and several fine Rivers which discharge themselves about the Head of the Bay of Fundy are rendered Navigable. The Gulph of St. Lawrence Tides in Bay Verte on the North East of the Isthmus rise only 8 Feet." The charts of Nova Scotia were surveyed under Des Barres' direct supervision in the 1760's. Des Barres, of Swiss-Huguenot extraction, studied under the great mathematician Daniel Bernoulli at the University of Basel, before continuing on to the Royal Military College at Woolwich. Upon the outbreak of hostilities with France in 1756, he joined the British Royal American Regiment as a military engineer. He came to the attention of General James Wolfe, who appointed him to join his personal detail. During this period he also worked with the future legendary explorer James Cook on a monumental chart of the St. Lawrence River. From 1762, Des Barres was enlisted to survey the coastlines of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, while his colleague, Samuel Holland charted the New England coast. He also managed to gain access to some surveys of the American South, Cuba and Jamaica. In 1774, Des Barres returned to England where he began work on The Neptune. His dedication to the project was so strong, that often at his own expense, he continually updated and added new charts and views up until 1784. That year he returned to Canada, where he remained for a further forty years, becoming a senior political figure and a wealthy land owner, and living to the advanced age of 103. The Atlantic Neptune, the most celebrated sea atlas, contained the first systematic survey of the east coast of North America. Des Barres's synergy of great empirical accuracy with the peerless artistic virtue of his aquatint views, created a work that "has been described as the most splendid collection of charts, plates and views ever published" (National Maritime Museum Catalogue). Upon the conclusion of the Seven Years War, Britain's empire in North America was greatly expanded, and this required the creation of a master atlas featuring new and accurate sea charts for use by the Royal Navy. Des Barres was charged with this Herculean task, publishing the first volume in London in 1775, which was soon followed by three further volumes. Des Barres's monumental endeavor eventually featured over two-hundred charts and views, many being found in several states. Des Barres's charts were immensely detailed, featuring both hydrographical and topographical information, and in many cases remained the most authoritative maps of the regions covered for several decades. National Maritime Museum (Greenwich), Henry Newton Stevens Collection, 15f.

$5000.00

Chart of the Harbours of Salem, Marblehead, Beverly and Manchester from a Survey taken in the years 1804, 5, & 6
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Chart of the Harbours of Salem, Marblehead, Beverly and Manchester from a Survey taken in the years 1804, 5, & 6

By BOWDITCH, Nathaniel (1773-1838)

[Salem, Massachusetts], 1806. Hand-coloured engraved map, engraved by Hooker & Fairman, on laid paper watermarked "J. Whatman 1804" Minor tears in top margin repaired. Sheet size: 21 1/2 x 27 inches. An American cartographic rarity: the true first edition of Bowditch's famed chart of the coasts of Salem, Beverly, Marblehead and Manchester. Bowditch's separately-issued chart, the first accurate chart of those waters, was among the earliest nautical charts based on first-hand surveys by an American to be published in the United States. Born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of a local cooper and shipmaster, at a young age Nathaniel Bowditch was apprenticed to a local ship chandlery. With his intelligence and mathematical skills evidenced in abundance, he was encouraged by three local Harvard-trained scholars and inventors: Nathan Read, John Prince, and William Bentley. Under their tutelage, he studied Latin, French, mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy, navigation and he constructed his own surveying equipment. In 1794, Bowditch assisted Bentley and shipmaster John Gibaut in a land survey of Salem. Gibaut shortly thereafter appointed Bowditch as his clerk on a voyage to the East Indies. Between 1795 and 1803, Bowditch sailed to the East Indies five times, continuing his studies on chartmaking and navigation on board. By his final voyage, Bowditch served as master and part-owner of the ship. Practical sailing experience combined with his studies of astronomy made Bowditch one of the best navigators in America. In 1799, publisher and chartseller Edmund Blunt hired Bowditch to revise John Hamilton Moore's New Practical Navigator. Bowditch added much in the way of additional information to the work and contributed so much in the way of revisions, that Blunt decided to completely redo the book, publishing it in 1802 with a new title and with Bowditch listed as the author. Bowditch's American Practical Navigator would prove a fundamentally important work on the art of navigation, with scores of tables and diagrams, and a wealth of practical information, becoming known as the Seamen's Bible. Around the time of the first publication of Bowditch's Navigator, while serving as the President of the Essex Fire and Marine Insurance Company, it became evident that the existing charts of the waters around Salem and Marblehead were deficient. In a rare, separately-published 30-page text of sailing directions to accompany the present chart, Bowditch writes: "The only chart of the entrance of the harbours of Salem, Marblehead, Beverly and Manchester, is that published from the survey taken by Holland and his assistants, just before the American revolutionary war. That period was particularly unfavorable for obtaining an accurate survey of the sea-coast, as the Americans were generally opposed to its being done at that time, fearing that it would give the British the great advantage of being able safely to enter with their armed ships into any of our harbours. In consequence of this, Holland received but little assistance from our pilots, in exploring the sunken ledges and shoals off our harbours; and as it was almost impossible to discover them without such assistance, they were generally omitted by him. This deficiency renders those charts in a great degree useless, though they are accurate as respects the bearings and distances of the islands and the coast. From the time of Holland's survey, till the year 1794, nothing was towards obtaining a more accurate chart. In that year a general survey of the state was ordered by the legislature; but it is to be regretted that this survey was not directed to be made in a manner calculated to ensure accuracy in the execution of it ... the laudable intentions of the legislature were very imperfectly carried into execution; and the map ... was such as was to have been expected." He continues by describing his first-hand surveys to produce this chart by himself, assisted by George Burchmore & William Ropes III: "To do this an excellent theodolite, made by Adams, furnished with a telescope and cross wires, was procured to measure the angles and a Rood chain to measure the distances. With these instruments, the bearings and distances of the shore from Gales point in Manchester, to Phillips point in Lynn (the two extremities of this survey) were carefully ascertained; and the necessary observations were taken for fixing with accuracy the situation of the islands. Soundings were taken throughout the whole extent of the survey, particularly round the dangerous ledges and shoals, several of which were explored, that were hardly known by our best pilots ... most of which were so little known, that names had not been given to them; and during the whole time employed on the survey, which was above eighty days, from two to five persons were hired to assist in sounding and measuring. From these observations the new chart was plotted off, and an accurate engraving of it made, &c." Bowditch's original copperplate has survived and is located in the Peabody Essex Museum. Its survival, however, has resulted in later restrikes, as early as a second edition in 1834 (with additions by Charles M. Endicott listed in seven lines of text below the compass rose) but including others into the 20th century. However, the present first edition of the chart, without the Endicott additions and on paper watermarked 1804, is extremely rare. We find no other examples of the first edition chart on the market, and with only three institutional holdings (Boston Athenaeum, Boston Public Library and Harvard). Guthorn, United States Coastal Charts, p.34 (1834 edition); Garver, Surveying the Shore, p.51.

$45000.00

America Settentrionale colle nuove scoperte fin all' anno 1688
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America Settentrionale colle nuove scoperte fin all' anno 1688

By CORONELLI, Vincenzo Maria (1650-1718)

Venice: V. M. Coronelli, 1690. Copper-engraved map, on two joined sheets, in excellent condition. A superlative impression of Coronelli's important and innovative map, and a foundation map for any serious collection of the cartography of North America Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, a Venetian scholar and Minorite Friar, became one of the most celebrated map and globe makers of his era. Throughout his industrious life he produced more than one-hundred terrestrial and celestial globes, several hundred maps, and a wealth of cartographic publications. In 1683, he completed the Marly Globes for Louis XIV, the largest and most magnificent globes ever made. In 1684 he founded the Academia Cosmografica degli Argonauti, the first geographical society, and was appointed Cosmographer of the Republic of Venice. He published two atlases, the Atlante Veneto (Venice, 1691) and the Isolario (1696-98), and compiled the first encyclopaedia to be arranged alphabetically. This magnificent map of North America, published in the Atlante Veneto , is widely considered to be one of Coronelli's finest maps, and is cartographically similar to the scene depicted on his famous globe of 1688. Printed initially on two separate sheets, the present example has been carefully joined to form a wonderful unified image. The map is beautifully preserved in its uncoloured state, as originally intended. Artistically, it is a masterpiece of late Baroque engraving. Its title cartouche, featuring scenes of gods blessing the era of European expansion evince the sumptuous style of Coronelli's Venice. Finely engraved scenes of native Americans and real or imagined beasts adorn the land and seas. Apart from displaying a fine aesthetic sense, Coronelli has rendered the continent with far greater geographical detail than his contemporaries, having benefited enormously from his favour at the French court and his publishing partnership with Paris cartographer Jean-Baptiste Nolin. The Great Lakes are drawn with unrivalled accuracy, drawing on information gleaned in 1673 by the Quebecois explorer Louis Jolliet, and his traveling companion, the French-born Jesuit Jacques Marquette. The Mississippi basin is rendered with great detail, reflecting French discoveries, most notably those by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle on his first expedition of 1679-82. This map depicts La Salle's dramatic misplacement of the mouth of the Mississippi 600 miles to the west of its true location. Importantly, it is on the western portion of the map where Coronelli has added the most significant amount of new information, drawn mostly from a highly important manuscript map by Diego Dionisio de Peñalosa Briceño y Berdugo, which included numerous previously unrecorded place names and divided the Rio Grande into the Rio Norte and the Rio Bravo in the south. The manuscript map was probably originally prepared by Peñalosa between 1671 and 1687 as part of his attempts to interest the French King Louis XIV in his plans to mount an military expedition against New Spain. The most prominent geographical detail of the map is California's appearance as a massive island, this map being one of the best renderings of this beloved misconception. The precise geographical details are enlivened by the presence of numerous captions noting discoveries or details of the terrain. Burden, The Mapping of North America II 643; Mapping the West pp.43-47; Cumming The Exploration of North America p.148; Leighly California as an Island 88; Martin Maps of Texas and the Southwest p.87; McLaughlin California as an Island 103; Portinaro pl.CII; Phillips Maps p. 795; Shirley 548; Tooley America p.125 ; cf. Tooley Maps & Map-Makers p. 21; Wheat Trans-Mississippi West I, 70.

$22000.00

Map of the State of Texas Engraved to Illustrate Mitchell's School and Family Geography
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Map of the State of Texas Engraved to Illustrate Mitchell's School and Family Geography

By MITCHELL, S.A.

Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co, 1852. Hand-colored engraving by J. H. Young. Mild time toning. Occasional spots. Two minor creases in the lower right corner. Small losses in top margin. A small but comprehensive map of Texas, showing the new boundaries after the Compromise of 1850, with inset maps of the panhandle and Galveston. Included are topographical details and several trails: the Santa Fe Trail and a number of west Texas trails emanating from the Pecos River. Rumsey, 554 (Atlas).

$650.00

A New Map of North America, with the West India Islands. Divided according to the preliminary articles of peace, signed at Versailles, 20, Jan. 1783. wherein are particularly distinguished the United States, and the several provinces, governments &ca which compose the British Dominions; laid down according to the latest surveys, and corrected from the original materials, of Goverr. Pownall, Member of Parliamt
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A New Map of North America, with the West India Islands. Divided according to the preliminary articles of peace, signed at Versailles, 20, Jan. 1783. wherein are particularly distinguished the United States, and the several provinces, governments &ca which compose the British Dominions; laid down according to the latest surveys, and corrected from the original materials, of Goverr. Pownall, Member of Parliamt

By [BOWEN, Emanuel (c.1720-67) and John GIBSON (fl. 1750-1792)]- Robert LAURIE (1755-1836) & James WHITTLE (d.1818), publishers

London: Laurie & Whittle, 1794. Engraved map on four joined sheets, hand coloured in outline. Overall joined sheet size: 41 5/8 x 46 7/8 inches. Bowen and Gibson's large scale wall map of North America: a Laurie and Whittle issue published following the Treaty of Paris which ended the American Revolution. Bowen and Gibson's map was first issued in about 1755 under the title An Accurate Map of North America. It was reprinted and variously altered for the next forty years, attesting to its importance. Aside from its stunning visual impact, Bowen and Gibson's map contains a tremendous amount of information, including numerous Native American placenames in the western areas, notes and routes of early roads, and the forts along the Mississippi and to the west of the Appalachians. The two insets are of Baffin and Hudson's Bay, and the mouth of the Colorado River, this latter inset map based on the explorations of Eusebio Kino. The present map exhibits what is the fourth version of the title, and is an issue which incorporates the changes brought about by the end of the American Revolution and the 1783 Treaty of Paris. A notation on the map reads: "The Divisions in this map are coloured according to the preliminaries signed at Versailles, January 20th. 1783. The Red indicates the British possessions; the Green those of the United States; the Blue what belongs to the French, and the Yellow what belongs to the Spaniards." In updating the map to fit the new circumstances, the articles of the 1763 Treaty have been entirely removed, and the cartouche has been considerably reworked, among other changes. The present issue includes both Laurie and Whittle imprint in the cartouche and Sayer's 1786 imprint in the bottom right corner, making this an intermediate state between Stevens and Tree 49(j) and 49(k). Cf. Degrees of Latitude 36; cf. Stevens & Tree, "Comparative Cartography" 49, in Tooley, The Mapping of America.

$2800.00

Course of the Mississippi from the Balise to Fort Chartres; taken on an Expedition to the Illinois in the latter end of the year, 1765
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Course of the Mississippi from the Balise to Fort Chartres; taken on an Expedition to the Illinois in the latter end of the year, 1765

By ROSS, Lieutenant

London: Robert Sayer, 1775. Engraved with outline color, on two joined sheets. Formerly folded into atlas. Some skilful marginal restoration. The first large-scale map of the Mississippi River, and the first based in whole or in part on English surveys. In the 1763 Treaty of Paris, which ended the French and Indian War, the east bank of the Mississippi was transferred from French to British sovereignty. And in 1765, Lieutenant Ross was sent on an expedition up the river as far as Illinois. Upon his return, he created a manuscript map focused on the great river that added his expedition's observations to the most recent French cartographical information, particularly that contained in D'Anville's map. The Ross map provided the first detailed, large-scale look at the river for its entire length, with the scattered French settlements and Native American tribal regions along its banks. Interestingly, the east bank features far more detail than the opposing side, as Ross and other British surveyors were technically only permitted to explore the British side of the river, which henceforth represented the western boundary of the English colonies. The Chart begins at the top in Illinois where the French had established Fort de Chartres in 1720 on the east bank of the river, south of St. Louis and the confluence of the Illinois River. The map was first published by Robert Sayer on June 1, 1772. This second issue of 1775 shows many alterations in the neighborhood of New Orleans, including the addition of Forts St. Leon and St. Mary. Stevens & Tree, "Comparative Cartography" 31b, in Tooley, The Mapping of America ; Phillips, A List of Maps of America, , p. 439.

$4500.00

Canada Louisiane et Terres Angloises
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Canada Louisiane et Terres Angloises

By D'ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon (1697-1782)

Paris, 1755. Copper-engraved map, on four unjoined sheets. Large inset titled "Le Fleuve Saint-Laurent..." D'Anville's four sheet map of North America after John Mitchell. This four sheet map shows North America from James Bay to Florida and as far west as the Mississippi River. The map was based in part on Mitchell's famous map of the United States which appeared earlier in the same year. D'Anville developed his version of the map with an emphasis on French influence on the area, omitting Mitchell's legend, references to English factories in the disputed trans-Allegheny area, and drew on French sources for additional details over the Mitchell map. The map provides early detail along the lower portion of the Missouri (alternately the "Pekitanoui") and the upper waters of the Mississippi. The Keweenaw peninsula is named as Kiaonan, and Isle Royale is called I. Minong. It is filled with scores of Indian tribes and villages named and located. "To illustrate the cartography of the second half of the eighteenth century, a d'Anville map is essential. He dominated not only French but all contemporary geographers. He was one of the foremost to leave blank spaces in his maps where knowledge was insufficient ... His representation of the Great Lakes is superior to that of his contemporary, John Mitchell" Tooley). D'Anville's map would become the basis for numerous future mappings, most notably by Jeffereys and Sayer & Bennett. This copy with the rare fourth sheet comprising the inset of the St. Lawrence River, often found lacking due to its irregular shape. Cumming, Southeast in Early Maps 296; Kershaw, Early Printed Maps of Canada II:625; Sellers and Van Ee, Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies 17; McCorkle, New England in Early Printed Maps 755.1; Phillips, A List of Maps of America , p.760; Tooley, "Mapping of the Great Lakes" pp. 316-317 in Tooley, The Mapping of America.

$2500.00

Map of the First and Second Anthracite Coal Fields
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Map of the First and Second Anthracite Coal Fields

By FISHER, Samuel B.

Pottsville, Pennsylvania: Watson's Litho., Philadelphia, 1836. Lithographed map, hand-coloured in outline, sectioned and linen-backed at a contemporary date. Sheet size: 47 x 88 1/2 inches. Folds into half calf and period marbled paper covered portfolio binding. Housed in a blue morocco backed box. Provenance: William Rawle (early signature). Very rare, detailed map of coal region in east-central Pennsylvania. Samuel Fisher served as a civil engineer working in the coal region. In 1834, the Pennsylvania Board of Trade commissioned this map, as detailed in a report on the coal trade within Hazard's Register of Pennsylvania : "The Board have long been desirous of procuring a correct map of the Coal Region, and have exerted themselves to secure the talents of a gentleman qualified for that undertaking: and they feel gratified that they are able to annouce to you that such a work is in progress and will soon be completed ... [The map] on a scale of 1 5/8 inches to the mile, will take in the Coal Fields of the Schuylkill, Little Schuylkill, Lehigh, Beaver Meadow, Mahony, Lykens Valley and Swatara, covering a space of fifteen miles from North to South and forty miles from East to West; and will lay down each tract with the original patentee, the number of acres, date of survey, and as far as possible the names of the present owners." The actual map in the end would be on a scale of 200 perches to the inch (approx. .625 miles to the inch), and ranging approximately 30 miles north to south and 50 miles east to west. The map depicts the region in central northeastern Pennsylvania,, bounded by the Susquehanna river to the west and north, as far south as Pottsville, as far east as the Lehigh River. Individual land owners are named, and coloured lines and symbols depict the coal deposits, as well as the railroads (existing and proposed), coounty and turnpike roads, as well as county and township borders. "This must be one of the earliest maps of this type, and we can find no record of it. Watson's Lithography produced other coal maps during this period, and this is earlier than any that were listed. This is an unusual thematic map showing coal deposits and ownership" (Rumsey). Rumsey 4304.

$9500.00

Chart from New York to Timber Island including Nantucket Shoals from the latest Surveys
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Chart from New York to Timber Island including Nantucket Shoals from the latest Surveys

By NORMAN, John; and Osgood CARLETON

Boston: printed and sold by John Norman, 1794. Copper engraved sea chart, on seven sheets, unjoined. Greatest dimensions (if joined): approximately 50 x 76 inches. Rare complete copy of the first edition of Norman's chart of the New England coast line. The American Revolution brought an end to Britain's leading role in the mapping of America. The task now fell to the American publishing industry still in its infancy, but with first-hand access to the new surveys that were documenting the rapid growth of the nation. In particular, there was a need for nautical charts for use by the expanding New England commercial fleets. The first American marine atlas, Mathew Clark's A Complete Set of Charts of the Coast of America, was published in Boston in 1790. Two of Clark's charts had been engraved by John Norman, who was inspired to launch his own enterprise. In January 1790, Norman published a notice in the Boston Gazette stating he was currently engraving charts of all the coast of America on a large scale. These were assembled and published as The American Pilot in Boston in 1791. Norman's Pilot, the second American marine atlas, indeed the second American atlas of any kind, marked an advance over the earlier work of Mathew Clark. The present map is among the most impressive from the atlas. Printed on seven sheets, the map joins to an irregular shape (sometimes described as an inverted T or inverted L shape). As the title suggests, the map depicts the entire coastline, from Manhattan Island in the south west, to Timber Island, Maine. Besides an accurate depiction of the coastline based on Holland's surveys, the map includes shoals and soundings, and with both coastal and inland towns and waterways. As the cartouche states, the map, and indeed the entire atlas, includes an attestation by Osgood Carleton (described as a "Teacher of Navigation and other Branches of the Mathematics"), certifying its accuracy. New editions of Norman's Pilot appeared in 1792 and 1794, and after his death, his son William Norman, brought out editions in 1794, 1798, 1801, and 1803. The present map is Wheat & Brun's second state, i.e. from the 1794 edition preceding John Norman's death, with the inclusion of the right extension sheet showing George's Bank, the inclusion of the northernmost sheet extending the map to Timber Island and with roads added connecting towns north of Boston. Later editions included a number of changes, most notably excluding the George's Bank and northernmost sheets. Despite the seemingly large number of editions, The American Pilot is one of the rarest of all American atlases. Wheat and Brun locate just ten complete copies for the first five editions: 1791 (Huntington, Harvard); 1792 (Library of Congress, Clements); 1794(1) (Library of Congress, John Carter Brown Library, Boston Public Library); 1794(2) (Yale); 1798 (Library of Congress, Boston Public Library). Only one other example of this map has appeared at auction in the last quarter century, being a later 19th century issue without the additional two sheets (Swann Galleries, 5 December 2013, selling for $37,500). Wheat & Brun 157 (state 2); McCorke 791.4; Suarez, Shedding the Veil 60 (1801 edition); Bosse, "The Boston Map Trade of the Eighteenth Century" in Mapping Boston , pp. 49-52.

$52500.00

Sectional map of the Territory of Kansas compiled from the field notes in the Surveyor General's Office
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Sectional map of the Territory of Kansas compiled from the field notes in the Surveyor General's Office

By HALSALL, John

St. Louis: John Halsall, 1857. Engraved folding pocket map, full contemporary hand-colouring, ornamental border. Folds into publisher's blindstamped cloth covers, upper cover titled in gilt, Colton ad on the front pastedown. Minor wear to spine of covers, map in excellent condition. Rare pocket map of Kansas Territory issued during the Bleeding Kansas conflict. The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 created those territories with the provision that the region's settlers would decide whether slavery would be lawful. The border state of Kansas thus became a breeding ground for anti- and pro-slavery conflict. Pro-slavery Missourians, known as border ruffians, flooded into the eastern half of the state, specifically along the Missouri River where slave-based agriculture would be feasible. Anti-slavery forces rallied, sending settlers from the North, with most coming from New England. Free state settlements were created in Topeka and Lawrence (both identified on this map), with the border ruffians establishing their capital at Lecompton (prominently displayed on this map and labelled in all capital letters). This map depicts the eastern half of the territory, extending as far west as the Principal Meridian. Thirty-seven counties are named, along with numerous locations of Indian lands and reservations. Numerous towns and forts are shown, along with the principal roads and waterways. "Large detailed map showing the Indian Lands and Reservations, the Forts, Towns, Rivers; with accurate sections as surveyed to that date" (Eberstadt). This map, however, is at its essence a cartographic representation of the slavery conflict and the events leading to the Civil War. Halsall's map, published in St. Louis, is considerably more rare than its Free Soil counterpart, issued by Whitman and Searl and printed in Boston. This is Heaston's third issue of the map, with the Kansas Indian Reservation identified, and the counties of Washington, Clay, Dickinson and Pottawatomie added. Eberstadt 113:273; Phillips, A List of Maps of America , p. 346; Heaston, Kansas Pocket Maps 9.

$5000.00

Map of the State of New York and the Surrounding Country
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Map of the State of New York and the Surrounding Country

By BURR, David (1803-1875)

Ithaca: Stone & Clark, 1841. Double-page engraved map, period hand colouring. Sheet size: 21 1/2 x 28 1/4 inches. Minor repair along lower centerfold. A fine map from a rare edition of Burr's Atlas of the State of New York: the first atlas devoted exclusively to New York State and an important milestone in the history of American cartography First published in 1829, Burr's atlas was financed by and under the auspices of the Legislature of the State of New York, and was drawn by Burr from the official surveys conducted by the Surveyor General's Office of the State. Burr's atlas was only the second atlas to be devoted to a single state, preceded only by Robert Mill's Atlas of South Carolina. The present general map of the state is from the rare third edition of 1841, published in Ithaca.

$850.00

A New and Exact Map of the Dominions of the King of Great Britain on ye continent of North America containing Newfoundland, New Scotland, New England, New York, New Jersey, Pensilvania [sic.] Maryland, Virginia and Carolina. According to the newest and most exact observations
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A New and Exact Map of the Dominions of the King of Great Britain on ye continent of North America containing Newfoundland, New Scotland, New England, New York, New Jersey, Pensilvania [sic.] Maryland, Virginia and Carolina. According to the newest and most exact observations

By MOLL, Herman (fl. 1678-1732)

London: Printed and Sold by Tho: Bowles next ye Chapter House in St. Pauls Church-yard, John Bowles, at the Black Horse in Cornhill and by I. King at ye Globe in ye Poultrey [sic.] near Stocks Market, 1731. Copper-engraved map, with period outline colour, on two joined sheets. Good condition apart from expertly repaired tears to folds. Overall size of joined sheets: 40 1/4 x 24 3/4 inches. A fine copy of state four (of five) of the famous 'Beaver' map of the English and French colonies in North America. "One of the first and most important cartographic documents relating to the ongoing dispute between France and Great Britain over boundaries separating their respective American colonies ... The map was the primary exponent of the British position during the period immediately following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713." ( Degrees of Latitude ) The British colonies according to British claims are outlined in red, with the French very lightly outlined in blue. All territory south of the St. Lawrence River and eastern Great Lakes is shown as British. Numerous notations relating to territorial claims, Indian tribes, the fur trade, and the condition of the land cover the face of the map. This map shows the early eighteenth century postal routes in the British colonies, and is frequently called the first American postal map. There are four insets, including a large map of coastal South Carolina, and a plan of Charleston. At lower left is a map of Florida and the Deep South, which is based on a map by Thomas Nairne, the Indian agent for South Carolina. The most striking feature is the large vignette which gives the map it's popular name. It consists of an early view of Niagara Falls, with a colony of beavers at work in the foreground. Pritchard holds that the beaver "was an appropriate image for the North American map for two reasons: the animal's importance to the fur trade, and its industrious nature." Cumming British Maps pp.6-12; Cumming Southeast in Early Maps 158; Degrees of Latitude 19 (state 4); Reinhartz Herman Moll Geographer pp.18-36; Schwartz and Ehrenberg Mapping of America pp.138, 144; Stevens and Tree 'Comparative Cartography' ,55 (c) in Tooley Mapping of America.

$22000.00

A Map of the British Empire in America with the French, Spanish and the Dutch Settlements adjacent thereto
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A Map of the British Empire in America with the French, Spanish and the Dutch Settlements adjacent thereto

By POPPLE, Henry; Johannes Covens and Cornelius Mortier, publishers

Amsterdam: Covens and Mortier, 1742. Copper-engraved map on four sheets, joined, 46 by 41 inches. Handsomely framed in a gold frame. A Primary Map of North America Henry Popple produced this map under the auspices of the Lord Commissioners of Trade and Plantations to help settle disputes arising from the rival expansions of English, Spanish and French colonies. "France claimed not only Canada, but also territories drained by the Mississippi and its tributaries - in practical terms, an area of half a continent" - Goss, The Mapping of North America , p.122. The thrust of British mapmaking after 1718 was to establish her presence cartographically on the French. Hence the title "The British Empire in America..."Nevertheless, in making the map, Popple used the best available geographical information: Colonel Barnwell's map of the southeast; De L'Isle's "Carte de la Louisiane"; Cadwallader Colden's map of the Iroquois nations, and seems to have come up with a map that did not please imperialistic British viewers as much as it did those who only wanted an accurate depiction. The result is a vast map of North America never before delineated in such detail, and a source of delight and intrigue to this day. Babinksi notes that George Washington owned a copy of the Key map (Popple's abbreviated version) and Benjamin Franklin ordered two copies for the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1746 and another in 1752. The Popple and Mitchell (1755) maps were the most important maps of North America made in the 18th century and were widely known and referred to throughout the formation of the United States. This example is the second state of the edition published by Covens and Mortier in Amsterdam, circa 1742. Covens & Mortier was a highly respected Amsterdam map publishing firm, which, more than any of their colleagues, maintained the high standards established by the Dutch and French cartographers of the previous century. It is differentiated from the first state by the word "Hollandish" being changed to "The Dutch" in the cartouche. The original Popple map is virtually impossible to present as a unified piece (joined, it measures more than eight feet square). The Covens and Mortier version of Popple offers in a more manageable and accessible form all the geographical and political material of the original, including the depiction of Wager's sea battle with the Spanish near Cartagena in 1707. The region in question, the Eastern half of North America and a portion of northern South America, is laid out on four sheets, which joined are 46 x 41 inches. An excellent example of the most important American map of its era. Mark Babinski, Henry Popple's 1733 Map (New Jersey, 1998), state 2 of the Covens & Mortier edition; E. McSherry Fowble, Two Centuries of Prints in America 1680-1880 (1987), 6, 7 (ref); Graff 3322; Howes P481, "b"; Lowery 338; McCorkle et al, America Emergent 21; McCorkle, New England 741.3; Phillips, Maps 569; Sabin 64140; Schwartz & Ehrenberg, p.151; Streeter Sale 676; Stephenson & McKee, Virginia in Maps , map II-18A-B. (Some citations are for the original 1733 Popple map).

$14000.00

Caroline meridionale et partie de la Georgie Par le Chevr. Bull Gouverneur Lieutenant. le Capitaine Gascoign, Chevr. Bryan. et de Brahm Arpenteur Général de la Caroline Meridle. et un Arpenteurs de la Georgie, en 4 Feuilles [with inset strip map:] Cours del la Riviere d'Hudson et la Communication avec le Canada Par le Lac Champlain Jusqu'au Fort Chambly par Sauthier
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Caroline meridionale et partie de la Georgie Par le Chevr. Bull Gouverneur Lieutenant. le Capitaine Gascoign, Chevr. Bryan. et de Brahm Arpenteur Général de la Caroline Meridle. et un Arpenteurs de la Georgie, en 4 Feuilles [with inset strip map:] Cours del la Riviere d'Hudson et la Communication avec le Canada Par le Lac Champlain Jusqu'au Fort Chambly par Sauthier

By DE BRAHM, William Gerard (1717-99)

Paris: Chez le Rouge rue des grands Augustins, 1777. Copper-engraved map, with original outline colour, on four sheets, partially joined to form two folding sheets, one joined section: 29 x 40 1/2 inches, the other 30 1/2 x 40 1/4 inches, with strengthened left margins. A very fine copy of this important large scale map of the Carolinas and Georgia, with an inset of the course of the Hudson River, an early French edition of the most important source map of the region for the second half of the 18th century. The rare "Le Rouge" edition of De Brahm's 'A Map of South Carolina and Part of Georgia,' with the addition of Le Rouge's version of Claude Sauthier's map of the course of the Hudson River. Cumming writes of the De Brahm's map: 'This map shows the coast from the North Carolina boundary line southward to St. Mary's River in Georgia and extends westward to the Indian country ... For the coastal region and up the larger rivers as far as the settlements extend, great care and detail in surveying is evident ... The actual amount of topographical information given ... is impressive.' (Cumming p.280). Le Rouge explains the presence of the strip map of the course of the Hudson as a sort of bonus. Seeing that the fourth sheet of the map was largely blank, and as a 'thank you' to the map-buying public after forty years in the business, he decided to add 'Cours de Riviere d'Hudson qui est un chef d'oeuvre de Sauthier' which sells for 3 pounds 12 shillings in London. The fine strip-map actually takes the place of the large title vignette and index of land owners in South Carolina and Georgia that is found on the edition of 1757. De Brahm emigrated from Germany to Georgia in 1751. His long service as a military engineer in the army of Charles VII of Bavaria placed him in good stead, his talents were recognized and his advice and designs for fortifications much sought after. These requests for advice involved much travelling, and allowed him to gather a great deal of information about South Carolina and Georgia. After less than two years he felt confident enough to announce his intention of publishing a map of the area and asking for information from land owners who wanted their plantations included. But it wasn't until 1757 that the map was eventually published. De Brahm became the Surveyor General of the Southern District of North America, and his map remained the most important general source map of the area for the rest of the eighteenth century. Cf. Cumming, The Southeast in Early Maps, 310 (1757 edition, mentions Le Rouge edition); cf. Degrees of Latitude, 57 (1757 edition); Phillips, A List of Maps of America, p.820.

$8500.00

Stanford's Library Map of North America
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Stanford's Library Map of North America

By JOHNSTON, Alexander Keith (1804-1871)

London: Edward Standford, 1875. Engraved map on four sheets, full period hand colouring, sectioned and linen-backed as issued. Inset of the Aleutian Islands. Sheet size: 67 x 57 1/2 inches (if joined). Housed in a red morocco backed box. Unusual English case map of North America. Originally published during the American Civil War, this issue includes additions to 1875, particularly seen in the American West. Curiously, the publisher has retained the original hand colouring scheme from the Civil War issue, with the Confederate States uniformly coloured in purple, and the Union states in yellow; the western states and territories are variously coloured. Depicting all of North America, as well as Central American and the Caribbean, the map is accomplished on a large scale (approx. 85 miles to the inch), resulting in impressive detail, showing cities, rivers, roads, forts, peaks and Native American territories. A handsome large map of the North America from the second half of the 19th century. Rumsey 0946.

$4500.00

Map of the United States with the contiguous British and Spanish Possessions Compiled from the latest and best authorities
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Map of the United States with the contiguous British and Spanish Possessions Compiled from the latest and best authorities

By MELISH, John (1771-1822)

[Philadelphia, 1816. Engraved map, engraved by J. Vallance & H. S. Tanner, period hand colouring in outline, dissected into 40 sections and linen-backed, as issued. Housed in a full blue morocco box. The first large-scale map of the United States and a cornerstone map of the American west: first edition, fourth state. A map of inestimable importance - one which synthesized the best data available at the crucial moment of the opening of American West, and one which, in a sense, envisioned and enabled the 'Manifest Destiny' of the United States. "The cartographic publication that best publicized for the American people the data derived from the Lewis and Clark Expedition and Zebulon Pike's exploration of the southwest in 1806 and 1807 was John Melish's 1816 Map of the United States ." (Ristow p.446) Also, much like the Mitchell map of the previous century, the Melish map became the map of record in many important treaties between the United States and Spain, Mexico, and both the Republic and State of Texas. Specifically, the United States-Mexico boundary was laid out on a copy of the map according to the Adams-Onis Treaty signed in February 22, 1819. Martin and Martin write: "Recognizing that the demand for geographical information on the American west was limitless in the foreseeable future, Melish undertook to accumulate a vast amount of descriptions, statistics and maps and in 1816 produced in six sheets his famous map ... For the Texas area, Melish relied heavily on the surveys conducted by William Darby, who had personally surveyed much of the Sabine River area ... Melish's map significantly improved the descriptions and depictions of the Texas interior, but perhaps its most lasting value to history was its official association with the Adams-Onis Treaty, because Melish's 90th meridian, today the eastern boundary of the Texas Panhandle, was off by approximately ninety miles, controversy and court litigation concerning the correct boundary lasted well beyond Texas's annexation ... Of lasting value, too, was the widespread dissemination of new information concerning Texas geography only five years before Stephen F. Austin decided to honor his father's contract with the Mexican government to bring Anglo-American settlers to inhabit this rich new land" (Martin & Martin). The map also played a key role in the development of American mapmaking. "An exquisite map, it distinguished Melish as the leading American map publisher of the second decade and placed American maps on equal footing with those produced by the prestigious firms in London and Paris" (Schwartz). In fact, Melish founded the first company in the United States to deal specifically in maps and geographical works. The map was engraved by arguably the two finest map engravers in the United States at the time, John Vallance and Henry S. Tanner. It set a new standard for clarity and precision in map production. The present copy is the fourth state of the first edition of 1816, as identified by Ristow (in A la carte pp.162-182, the most complete account of the map): a rare early issue of the first edition, prior to Mississippi Territory being divided into the State of Mississippi and Alabama Territory. There are two primary reasons for the great rarity of this map: firstly, Melish only printed 100 copies of each issue to allow him to constantly update the map with the latest geographical information, the second reason is its large size which has ensured a high attrition rate over the past two centuries. It would not be exaggerating to say that Melish's map, the first on a large scale to show the area of the present United States from coast to coast, provided most Americans with their first clear-sighted view of the continental landmass of which the United States was a part. Although the term Manifest Destiny, referring to the inevitability of the growth of the United States across the entire continent, was not current until the 1840s, there can be little doubt that this powerful cartographic image was suggestive of the concept. Such can be gleaned from Thomas Jefferson, who said of the map that it provides a "luminous view of the comparative possessions of different powers in our America." Ristow, American Maps and Mapmakers , p. 446; Ristow in A la Carte, pp. 162-182; Schwartz & Ehrenberg, pp. 238-39, pl. 233; Wheat II, no. 322, pp. 62-64; Martin & Martin, p. 115 (plate 26).

$85000.00

Virginia, Marylandia et Carolina in America Septentrionali Britannorum..
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Virginia, Marylandia et Carolina in America Septentrionali Britannorum..

By HOMANN, Johann Baptist (1663-1724)

Nuremberg, 1730. Copper-engraved map, with full original colour. Good condition, with small expert repairs to margins. A strong impression of a highly decorative and historically important map of Virginia, and most of the east coast, by an eminent German cartographer This very attractive map was devised as a propaganda tool, to showcase Virginia as a land of plenty to prospective German immigrants. Homann first printed this map in 1714, including it in his Atlas Novus. That year, Alexander Spotswood, the Lt. Governor of Virginia, founded Germanna, a colony for German immigrants on the banks of the Rapidan River, identified on the map as "Germantown / Teutsche Statt". English settlers had proven reticent to migrate to the colony's interior, leaving it vulnerable to French and native encroachment. Spotswood hoped that a wave of German immigration would act as a protective bulwark for Virginia, while also making him a fortune from related property speculation. While Virginia is geographically given the place of honour in the centre of the map, the art of persuasion is principally conveyed by the large title cartouche occupying the lower right of the map. Surrounding an open scallop shell, the iconography of Utopia is presented with blazing intensity. Natives, shown as "noble savages", in the manner of Theodore De Bry, offer their wares. Well-attired Europeans are shown enjoying a realm bursting with gold, kegs of libations, fish, produce and exotic animals. An opportunity to experience such a paradise must have appealed to Homann's intended audience. Importantly, while Virginia is the focus, the map embraces a vast portion of the eastern seaboard, from South Carolina to Connecticut, and is geographically quite conservative, save for the appearance of part of an impossibly large and misplaced Lake Erie in the upper left corner, and the imaginary lake "Apalache Lacus" in the lower left. One of the most celebrated cartographers of his day, Johann Baptist Homann established the most successful German publishing house of the eighteenth century. His prolific business, which was inherited by his family after his death, dominated Germany's map market for over a century, and produced some of the finest maps and atlases of the age. He established himself in Nuremberg, and by 1715 was appointed Geographer to the Emperor. After Homann's death, the business was taken over by his son, Johann Christoph. From 1730, the firm was entrusted to a committee of family members, the Homann Heirs, who published maps and atlases for the next two generations, maintaining the high standards set by Johann Baptist. Cumming The Southeast in Early Maps 156; Morrison On the Map 27; Degrees of Latitude 17.

$2950.00

[Original hand-drawn topographical map of the north & northwestern area above the Black Hills]
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[Original hand-drawn topographical map of the north & northwestern area above the Black Hills]

By FOOTE, Morris C., Lieut

[Near the Black Hills, South Dakota, 1878. Manuscript map, colored in outline, 12½ x 15¾ inches. One horizontal, one vertical fold, minor staining, some fold separations. [With:] Map of Reconnaissances of Routes in and leading from the Department of the Platte by Captain W. W. Stanton, Corps of Engineers. Washington:1877. An important manuscript map of the country near the Black Hills. A highly important work of cartography of the American West, a hand-drawn topographical map of an area immediately north of the Black Hills of South Dakota, drawn from Lieut. Morris C. Foote's survey notes by a cartographer involved in the 1878 Black Hills expedition. The map is referred to in Foote's manuscript journal for 1878. After marching from Fort Laramie, Cheyenne, then to Deadwood, S.D., Foote was ordered to help build telegraph lines in the wilds of South Dakota, north of the Black Hills. He created this topographical map during this time. His manuscript journal entries for Friday, Sept. 13, 1878 and the next day: "Command remained in camp. Warm. I went over and climbed on top of one of the Little Missouri buttes...for a very extended view took directions of prominent points.... Marched down the Belle Fourche about 17 miles hard work on topog. on account of pain in my bowels and a general sickness." Both of these areas (Little Missouri and Belle Fourche) feature prominently on the map. Then, Foote writes on September 19: "Had map of scout made from my notes and handed it in to Capt. Johnson." Other prominent landmarks or features labeled on the map include Alum Creek, Oak Creek, Johnson Creek, Camp Davis and Camp Green. A unique and important hand-drawn topographical map made for the U.S. Army in the American West during a critical time in the development of the area. With the manuscript map is a map published in December of 1877, which includes the region depicted in Foote's manuscript. This is a Corps of Engineers' map drawn by R. E. Koehneman under the direction of Captain Stanton. The map is 27 3/4 x 21 1/2" and includes all the Black Hills region from Deadwood to the Colorado border. Written in ink in the top margin is what appears to be "M C. Foot" and in the lower right "Capt. Gerald Russell 3d Cavalry"

$6750.00

[Manuscript map, titled within the map:] The Road from Boston to Albany by way of Springfield and Great Barrington ... [and] ... by way of Northampton to Albany

By BERNARD, Sir Francis (1712-1779) - [Francis MILLER, surveyor (1733-1800)]

[New England, 1765. Pen-and-ink on laid paper, with the road coloured in sepia and with water elements in green, with a yellow wash border within the gradients, on 17 sheets. (Minor repairs, one small blank section in the upper border lacking). Provenance: Sir Francis Bernard, Colonial Governor of Massachusetts (1712-1779); by descent to Robert Spencer Bernard, Nether Winchendon House, Buckinghamshire, England. Among the earliest American road maps: an important large-scale survey accomplished for the Colonial Governor of Massachusetts in 1765. In November 1969, noted historian of cartography William P. Cumming discovered in the family home of Sir Francis Bernard "a collection of maps that, in purpose and type, differed so markedly from the more usual military, coastal and general colonial maps of the time that it stands out in both interest and importance. These were domestic maps, of a gentleman's estates and the roads to them ... Probably Sir Francis's most important contribution to cartography was to have careful surveys made of the roads from Boston ... westward to Albany, New York, on a one-inch to two-thirds-mile scale. It was along part of this Albany to Boston road that the American rebels dragged the heavy cannon captured at Fort Ticonderoga that, set up on Dorchester Heights, forced General Howe's evacuation of Boston in 1776 ... No route maps as detailed as these, except for two short New Jersey road maps, are known for any other section of the eastern seaboard until those of Christopher Colles in 1789" (Cumming, p. 29-30). The present manuscript map depicts the road across Massachusetts, though does not extend as far as Albany. The road, divided into miles throughout, extends from Boston to Springfield, where it splits into two westward routes to Albany: the first a more southerly route via Great Barrington, Massachusetts, which ends on the present map at a point approximately 33 miles from Albany; and the more northerly route which is shown on the map as far as Northampton, just past the Connecticut River. The map is done on a very large scale of approximately 2/3 of a mile to the inch, with towns, rivers, mountains, residences, meetinghouses, and numerous taverns identified along the way. Cumming records this map (though as four separate entries [i.e. MP21-24, though with an incorrect sheet count]). Sir Francis Bernard became the Colonial Governor of Massachusetts in late 1759, shortly after British troops were victorious in the Battle of Quebec. That decisive French and Indian War victory opened a vast region for renewed English settlement and trade, thus necessitating the need for more accurate surveys of the roads. The present manuscript map was surveyed and drawn by talented military mapmaker Francis Miller in 1765 for Bernard, the details of which are recounted by Bernard in a 1766 letter to Lord Barrington: "I am desired to certify to your Lordship, that at the beginning of the Year 1764 Genl Gage at my Request, gave Leave to Ensign Francis Miller of the 45th regiment, then stationed in Newfoundland to come to Boston to assist me in some Works of Public Surveying, which I had undertaken in pursuance of resolutions of the general Assembly & partly by Orders from England. Mr Miller being then at an outpost & not easily relieved did not arrive at Boston till Nov in that Year, when the Season for actual Surveying was over. He was employed that Winter & Spring following in protracting the Surveys made that Summer, among which was a compleat Route from Fort Pownal on the River Penobscot to Quebec, & some other curious explorations of the Eastern parts of New England hitherto unknown to Englishmen: of which, elegant Maps drawn by Mr Miller have been transmitted to the Board of Trade. Early in the Last Summer I employed M' Miller (having previously informed Gen! Gage of the Intention) to make an actual Survey from Boston to Albany & back again by another Way being near 200 Miles; & afterwards from Boston to Penobscot being above 200 Miles; by which Means a true Geometrical Line of 400 Miles in length through part of New York & all the habitable part of New-England has been obtained, which will afford great Assistance to the Ascertaining the Geography of this Country & its Sea Coast. After this Survey was finished he was employed in protracting the Same & making Drawings thereof which he has done with great Accuracy & Elegance" (Bernard to Barrington, 11 January 1766, quoted in The Barrington-Bernard Correspondence, p. 103). This important manuscript map, detailing the route from Boston westward towards Albany, constitutes among the earliest of American road maps. William P. Cumming, British Maps of Colonial America, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1974) pp. 29-30 and Appendix A; cf. The Barrington-Bernard Correspondence (Cambridge: Harvard University, 1912).

$110000.00

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