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Personal and Family Papers of Frederick Llewellyn Hovey Willis, Unitarian minister, Medical Doctor, Author and Lecturer, resident for many years in the home of the Alcotts, and model for the character “Laurie” in Little Women, friend of Louisa May Alcott and the Transcendentalists – Amos Bronson Alcott, Henry David Thoreau, et al, and his wife Love Whitcomb Willis, materials dated 1806-1959

By Willis, Frederick Llewellyn Hovey (1830-1914)

"Laurie's" Papers. Large archive, housed in six cartons, pertaining to Frederick L. H. Willis, his wife and family, including an extensive collection of Correspondence (256 letters, 889 pp); with 16 Diaries, Journals, and Notebooks, (over 1200 pp); including an 1854-1855 Journal recording a trip from Boston to Brazil, with a stop in Virginia, in which Willis records his impressions of Slavery and interactions with African American slaves; plus over 5,000 manuscript pages of lectures, sermons, and other writings; and over 300 Photographs (mostly in albums); manuscript and typescript accounts of Willis' life with the Alcotts, and recollections of Louisa and Bronson Alcott, also included are 4 Scrapbooks; 30 Books and Pamphlets; plus other manuscript and printed Ephemera, all of which pertains to either Dr. Frederick Lewellyn Hovey Willis, his wife author Love Marie Whitcomb Willis, their daughter author and poet Edith L. Willis Linn, his in-laws Henry Whitcomb and Love Foster Whitcomb, other family and friends; including associates such as Harrison Gray Otis Blake and Theophilus Brown, both friends, correspondents, and promoters of Henry David Thoreau; as well as relatives and friends of Louisa May Alcott: Alcott's nephew and adopted son John Sewell Pratt Alcott, and her girlhood friend and early biographer Clara Gowing; plus Clara Endicott Sears purchaser and preservationist of "Fruitlands" the Alcott's failed Utopian community; and others, all dated from 1806 to 1959, with the bulk dating from the 1840s to the 1910s. The archive comprises the surviving papers of Frederick Llewellyn Hovey Willis, Unitarian minister, medical doctor, lecturer and writer, who as a young man boarded and lived with the Alcott family, from 1844-1854, and who, according to none other than Bronson Alcott1, Louisa's father, was the model for the character "Laurie" in Louisa May Alcott's Little Women. Willis was an orphan, and as he later discovered, was also a distant cousin of the Alcott's. Willis wrote, in his posthumously published Alcott Memoirs, 1915, describing a tragic loss for American literary history: "From my matriculative year at Harvard, until shortly before my marriage, I maintained a correspondence with Louisa. It is a matter of deep regret to me that, together with many papers of value, her letters, which were among my most valued treasures were stolen…" Willis played an important role in Louisa May Alcott's literary development, he was the one who secured publication for Alcott's first poem, by privately submitting the manuscript of "Sunlight" written under the pseudonym Flora Fairfield, to Peterson's Magazine. The magazine paid Louisa $ 5 and published the poem in September 1851. It was the first money Louisa May Alcott earned as a writer. The character Laurie in Little Women fills a similar role. The Alcotts likewise were an important influence upon Willis' life as well. Frederick Llewellyn Hovey Willis (1830-1914) Frederick Llewellyn Hovey Willis was born on 29 January 1830, in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Throughout his life he appears not to have used the name Frederick, preferring Llewellyn. Llewellyn was the only child of prosperous Massachusetts merchant Lorenzo Dow Willis (1805-?) and his wife Eleanor Hovey (1807-1830). Lorenzo was the cousin of Nathaniel Parker Willis (1806-1867), an American author, poet and editor who worked with several notable American writers including Edgar Allan Poe and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Nathaniel became the highest-paid magazine writer of his day. Llewellyn's parents married on 11 June 1829, at Cambridge. Since Mrs. Willis had her first baby in January 1830, it's likely she may have already been pregnant when she married Lorenzo. While Lorenzo was a successful merchant, but his business partner was unscrupulous and absconded with the funds of their enterprise, leaving Lorenzo to be thrown into debtor's prison. While Lorenzo's wife Eleanor had several wealthy brothers, who could have easily helped her husband to get out of debtor's prison, they refused. The Hovey family were not supportive of Lorenzo's marriage to Eleanor, as Lorenzo was rather liberal in his religion and the Hovey's were strict Baptists. However, even without the Hovey family help, Lorenzo was able to get out of prison in time to see the birth of his son Llewellyn. Llewellyn's mother Eleanor Hovey was born in 1807 in Cambridge and died on 2 February 1830, several days after giving birth to him. She was the daughter of Ebenezer Hovey (1769-1831) of Lunenburg, Massachusetts and his wife Sarah Greenwood (1771- ), of Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was one of at least twelve children born to her parents. After the death of his mother, Llewellyn was brought up by his grandmother, Sarah Greenwood Hovey, originally of Salem, Massachusetts, but then living in Cambridge. Her father was Colonel Darby of Salem, a famous trader in his day. The Hovey household was said to be one of extreme bigotry. Sarah's husband Ebenezer was one of the founders of the Baptist Church of Cambridge. At an early point Llewellyn was given to a mother of twins by his grandparents, who acted as a wet nurse when he was an infant. When he was old enough to be weaned, he lived with his maternal grandparents, as his father Lorenzo had also died, leaving Llewellyn an orphan. The grandparents sent him to an old woman in the country, where Llewellyn first became aware of his love of nature. At a young age Llewellyn was brought back to Cambridge to live with his maternal grandparents, where he was to be prepared for school in a very strict religious household. Boxes of his father's books were stowed in the attic of the home and Llewellyn would sneak away to read, as works of literature and politics were forbidden in the house. Llewellyn began his education in the public schools of Cambridge and was later apprenticed to an apothecary. When he was seven years old, he "got religion" in the old-fashioned sense. He tried his best to be a devout Baptist and please his grandparents but was not successful. At the age of twelve, because of his disbelief in foreordination, he was expelled from church as a heretic. His grandfather, being a founder of the church, felt compelled to expel Llewellyn from their home, however they did help him to seek lodging elsewhere. Two years later, in 1844, a chance meeting with Mrs. Abigail "Abba" Alcott (1800-1877), changed Llewellyn's life; Abba was the mother of American writer Louisa Alcott (1832-1888), and the wife of Amos Bronson Alcott (1799-1888), an American teacher, writer, philosopher, and reformer. As an educator, he pioneered new ways of interacting with young students, focusing on a conversational style, and avoided traditional punishment. He hoped to perfect the human spirit and, to that end, advocated a vegan diet before the term was coined. He was also an abolitionist and an advocate for women's rights. In early June of 1844, at the age of fourteen, Llewellyn was on a stagecoach ride from Boston to Still River Village in the town of Harvard. During the trip one of his fingers got caught in the door as it was closing causing such intense pain that he passed out. When he awoke, Mrs. Abba Alcott, was attending to him. A friendship was struck up and she took him to her home and introduced him to her four young daughters, Anna, Louisa, Lizzie and May (later immortalized as Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy in Louisa Alcott's "Little Women."). The very next day Llewellyn visited the Alcott family again, and within a week he convinced his grandmother to allow him to change his boarding to the Alcott home, where from the age of fourteen until he was twenty-four years old, he became an intimate member of the Alcott family, as a friend, boarder and guest in their home. It is said that he was loved as a son by Amos Bronson Alcott and his wife, and was for a number of years the only boy playmate of Louisa Alcott and her sisters, with the single exception of William, son of Charles Lane (1800–1870), an English-American transcendentalist, abolitionist, and early voluntarist, who along with Amos Bronson Alcott, was one of the main founders of Fruitlands and, like Alcott, a vegan. Through the Alcotts Willis met Emerson, Thoreau, Margaret Fuller, Hawthorne, Lydia Maria Child, all of the principal Abolitionists, Phillips, Pillsbury, Parker, Grimke, Weld, Horace Mann, Abbie Kelley Foster, Lucretia Mott and Lucy Stone, he also met Thomas Starr King, whom he served as an amanuensis for a time. Willis fell under the influence of Bronson Alcott's philosophy and became a disciple, and which later found expression in his sermons. Willis lived in the Alcott home at Still River Village in the latter half of 1844, and was with them again when they moved to "Hillside" at Concord from 1845 to 1848 (called "Wayside" by Nathaniel Hawthorne), and still later when they moved to Boston in 1848 into the 1850s when they lived at the Pinckney and High Street houses. He continued to live with them as he prepared for Harvard College. It was during his time of preparation that Willis acted as amanuensis for Thomas Starr King (1824-1864), an American Universalist and Unitarian minister, influential in California politics during the American Civil War. King spoke zealously in favor of the Union and was credited by Abraham Lincoln with preventing California from becoming a separate republic. Willis' description of the Alcott home in his own book, Alcott Memoirs, mirrors the way Louisa immersed her character Laurie into the life of the March family in Little Women. Laurie, the March family's neighbor, it will be remembered, had also lost his mother. Amos Bronson Alcott was at this time (March 1853) invited to teach a group of fifteen students at Harvard's Divinity School in an extracurricular, non-credit course. Willis may have attended or audited the course. Llewellyn also appears to have begun his studies at Harvard Divinity School at about this time. Willis undertook a sea voyage from Boston to Brazil from September 1854 to April 1855, so the chronology of his entrance to Harvard is unclear. However, Willis was later suspended from Harvard in 1857 for mediumistic activities (conducting seances). The case of his suspension is narrated by Emma Hardinge Britten in her book "Modern American Spiritualism: A Twenty Years' Record of the Communion between Earth and the World of Spirits" (New York: 1870). Prof. Eustis, an openly avowed sceptic of Spiritualism, sat in on one of the seances of Willis and afterwards accused Willis of "deception and imposture". Harvard wanted Willis to resign from his studies until the matter was investigated further, and a decision was considered that would not have an official record of the incident. However, Willis objected, demanding to be allowed to continue his studies, which led to Harvard suspending him. Soon after his suspension from Harvard, Willis was invited to Coldwater, Michigan, by Henry C. Gilbert who had recently established a Spiritualist church in Coldwater, and personally invited Willis to be the new minister. Willis, in his Alcott Memoirs, described himself as a "settled clergyman for a period of six years in Coldwater, Michigan," and his daughter described her father as a Universalist minister. However, it appears that Willis had continued practicing Spiritualism. Willis married Love Maria Whitcomb on 8 October 1858. The couple were married at Hancock, New Hampshire, by the Rev. Asahel Bigelow. At the time of his marriage Willis was living in Coldwater, Michigan and was listed as a preacher. Love Maria Whitcomb was born 9 June 1824, in Hancock, New Hampshire. When she married in 1858, she was living at home in Hancock and was six years older than her husband. She was the daughter of Henry Whitcomb (1787-1831) and Love Foster (1789-1873) his wife, both originally from Littleton, Middlesex County, Massachusetts. Willis' wife Love was an early member of "Sorosis" (est. March 1868 at New York City), the first professional women's club in the United States, being a member of the club by at least the year 1872, when she is found listed in the 4th Anniversary Program of the organization. At some point after his marriage in the early 1860s, Willis appears to have stopped being a preacher, and to have attended medical school in New York City at the New York Homeopathic Medical College. At an event advertised in the Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, NY) on 22 May 1912, it stated Willis was a member of the Alumni Association of the school. A memoir of the Alcott family written by Willis states he started medical school in New York City at the outbreak of the Civil War (1861). An advertisement (New York Daily Herald) of 12 March 1864, shows that Willis spoke at the Clinton Hall, Astor Place in New York City, every Sunday morning and evening. That week's subject was "What and Where is God?" and "The Significance of Life." The meetings were free to all, thus while attending medical school, he was still giving lectures, or preaching. For five years Willis was a Professor of Materia-Medica at the New York Homoeopathic Medical College for Women. He later practiced medicine in New York, Boston, and at his summer home in Glenora, New York, on Seneca Lake. The Willis family is found on the 1875 NY State Census and the 1880 Federal Census, Llewellyn is listed as a physician in Starkey, Yates County, New York and enumerated with his wife Love, and daughter Edith. The 1900 Federal Census shows that Willis and his wife were still living in Starkey, Yates County, New York; and that his daughter Edith, now married had moved out. Willis at 70 years of age, was listed without an occupation, although he was said to have practiced medicine until he was eighty-three years old. The Buffalo Times (Buffalo, NY) advertised on 16 January 1900, that "Dr. Frederick L.H. Willis of Rochester, formerly of Boston, has arranged to give a course of parlor lectures on 'Metaphysics or the Science of the Human Soul.' When the 1905 New York State Census was taken the couple was still in Starkey and Willis was listed as a physician. Frederick's wife, Love Willis, died 26 November 1908, in Elmira, Chemung County, New York and was buried in Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester, New York. In a newspaper story published in the Boston Globe of 16 November 1912, Willis wrote a letter to the Buffalo Express, claiming to have documentary evidence in the form of letters written by Louisa Alcott to him to prove his claim that he was the model for Laurie, the character in "Little Women." The same article goes on to state that Willis took the first manuscript of Alcott's to get published; it was titled "The Prince and the Fairy." He took it to the Boston Olive Branch, a publication of a Methodist denomination, and was paid $5.00. However, other accounts state that the first manuscript published was Alcott's poem "Sunlight". At some point between 1912 and the publication of Willis' Alcott Memoirs in 1915, Willis' "correspondence and other important papers" were stolen. These papers have not surfaced since that time. From The Selected Letters of Louisa May Alcott we learn that Louisa May Alcott began corresponding with Willis as early as 1845 (see p. 3). This fact offers a hint at the extent of the correspondence, as well as the loss. It is possible that the publication of this story may have led to the theft of the Alcott-Willis correspondence. Dr. Willis died at his home in Rochester on 12 April 1914. His obituary states that through his relationship with the Alcott family, he became intimate friends with Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Margaret Fuller, Charles A. Dana, George William Curtis, Frank B. Sandborn, and other literary lights of New England. Willis' memoirs of the Alcotts et al, were published after his death by his daughter Edith as "Alcott Memoirs: Posthumously Compiled from Papers Journals and Memoranda of the Late Dr. Frederick L. H. Willis," by E.W.L. & H.B. The book was published by Richard G. Badger of Boston in 1915. Willis and his wife Love had a daughter named Edith L. Willis. Edith was born about 1865, in New York; and died 1 October 1945, in Starkey, Yates County, New York. She was supposedly cremated, the location of ashes unknown, possibly at Mt. Hope Cemetery, Rochester, New York with her first husband, or in Riverside Cemetery, Rochester, where her second husband is apparently buried. She was a prolific authoress; poet; artist; and musician, co-edited her father's memoirs of his acquaintance with the family of Bronson Alcott his daughter Louisa May, authoress of "Little Women". Edith was married twice; her first marriage was to Samuel H. Linn. He was born on 26 September 1843, at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and died 26 February 1916, at Rochester, New York. He was buried at Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester. He was the son of Hugh William Linn (1818-1900) and his wife Mary Chadwick (1818-1907). Samuel served in the Civil War and was one of the squads acting as guards of honor for President Lincoln's funeral. Linn enrolled in dentistry school after the war and after a few years transferred practice to Europe, along with younger brother Benjamin, where he eventually settled in Leningrad, Russia, where after successfully performing a chin lift on a member of the Imperial family, he was asked by Tsar Alexander III to serve as personal dentist of the Romanoffs. After eight years of service he went to study medicine in Vienna; London; Paris; and the University of Pennsylvania, where he received his degree. Returning to Russia, he spent another eight years as court physician. He returned to the United States around 1886, married Edith Willis and settled in Rochester, but remained close to the Russian royal family, (Grand Duke Alexis was a close friend), which gave him numerous gifts: including a Russian carriage and driver which he kept in Rochester. Edith and Samuel Linn had a son by the name of Benjamin F. Linn. He was born 29 April 1889 and died 1923. He was buried with this father at Mount Hope Cemetery, Rochester. As her second husband, Edith Willis married George Mathes Forbes. High Lights from the Collection: The Willis collection includes manuscript drafts for chapters of his Alcott Memoirs, (Alcott as Abolitionist, Fruitlands, Alcott the Philosopher, etc.) as well as manuscript reminiscences on Bronson Alcott and the Alcott family, including the Alcott sisters. Willis also wrote favorably in support of Women's Rights and Women's Suffrage, there are also manuscript accounts of notable people he met through the Alcotts. The collection includes a manuscript entitled "Mr. Alcott as a Prophet", which was not included in his Alcott Memoirs. This manuscript was likely intended as a chapter in his book but was not used. The work contains further recollections of Bronson Alcott and of his lasting influence upon Willis. The sections that we quote from are either not in his published work or contains text that differs from the posthumously published work, edited by his daughter. The following manuscript, entitled: "The Four Little Women, Meg, Jo, Beth and Amy, offers a reminiscent account by Willis of the Alcott sisters, and differs substantially from the chapter Louisa and Her Sisters, in his Alcott Memoirs. In the account he uses the names of the sisters that Louisa gave them in her book: "Anna Bronson – Meg – was the eldest of the four. She had the clear, beautiful complexion of her father – pink and white as an infant's, with large, lovely blue eyes and golden brown hair. I sued to call her our "ox eyed Juno". She had a charming smile that revealed teeth like pearls of the orient. She possessed a quiet, even temperament and a remarkably amiable disposition, with a keen sense of humor, and a quiet enjoyment of fun and frolic. Both of the older sisters had a good degree of dramatic talent. Meg would have made a fine tragic actress, and Jo an equally fine comedienne. They were never happier than when getting up private theatricals. While yet quite young, Meg manifested a great deal of her father's quiet dignity of manner, blended with much of her mother's vivacity, practicality, and hopefulness of spirit. Mr. Alcott was stately and dignified in his bearing, and manners and in all his movements. I cannot remember ever seeing him make a quick or hasty movement. This was so apparent in him – so very marked, that it attracted the attention of a young Englishman, who bore the euphonious name of Cholmondeley. He was the descendant of an aristocratic old family – the nephew of a lord. He became so interested in Emerson, Alcott, and Thoreau, whose fame had reached England, that he visited this country, especially to make a study of their characters. While engaged in this interesting pursuit, he boarded in Concord for some time with Thoreau's mother, and became greatly attached to Thoreau, and greatly interested in Alcott. He had learned of his humble parentage, that he was the son of a plain Connecticut farmer, that he was not liberally educated, and that he began public life as a travelling pedlar. These facts he could not reconcile with the marked dignity, repose and even elegance of manner, and bearing of this gentle philosopher he exclaimed: "How is it possible! He has the manner and bearing of a grand peer!" This was the highest compliment that a scion of the British nobility could pay to a plain American citizen. As regards temperament, no contrast could be greater than that which existed between Meg and Jo. Meg was serene, self-poised equable. Jo was impulsive, impetuous, subject to moods. In almost every respect she was just the opposite of Meg. And yet the affection that existed between the two sisters was never ruffled even by Jo's most irritable moods. It was truly the harmony of opposites, and was beautiful to behold. Meg was all that Louisa represents her to have been in "Little Women", ever pursuing the even tenor of her way with all the regularity of the pendulum of a clock, ever most unselfishly devoting herself to the efforts for the comfort and happiness of those around her, and doing it all in so quiet and unostentatious a manner one would hardly suspect she was making any effort at all in that direction. The chief charm of it all was its spontaneity. She had a keen sense of the proprieties of life – the conventionalities. Jo did not care a snap of her fingers for them. She had as sovereign a contempt for them as had Thoreau. (Willis then gives a lengthy quote from Little Women, Vol. 1 page 9, illustrating his point, that he expresses in another section that "Louisa always lamented that she was not a boy…") … As Jo and I sympathized most heartily in this direction, we became excellently good comrades, and were constantly daring each other with stunts that were decidedly "boyish" in their characteristics, such as climbing the tallest trees, running foot races and hoop races, climbing fences, jumping, leaping, etc. Jo entered into these bouts with a zeal, and a vim that was truly inspiring and which put me to my trumps most decidedly. As a rule, the honors were pretty equally divided. I can recall but one feat in which I decidedly had the advantage for a time, and that was in leaping a fence or a horizontal bar, in which she was sadly hampered by her skirts, but she soon triumphed over that obstacle by improvising a pre-historical Bloomer costume. These exploits often called forth a little lecture from the dignified Meg. – "preachments", Louisa called them, but they were delivered in such a quaint, sweet, motherly sort of a way it was rather a pleasure, than otherwise to be rebuked by her. Meg married John Pratt, who was the son of Minot Pratt, who was one of the most esteemed members of the famous Brook Farm Phalanx, one of the earliest pioneers of the communist movement in this country. By profession he was a printer, and for several years held a position as foreman in the office of the Christian Register in Boston. Early in the forties he and his wife became deeply interested in the communistic ideas of Fourier and Robert Owen. …" (Willis then relates the involvement of the Pratts with Brook Farm and the Communistic movement, labor reforms, etc). Willis provides another recollection of Louisa: "Louisa always lamented that she was not a boy, and she endeavored to be one to the utmost extent that the physiological laws of being would admit. She dearly loved boy's games. She could leap a fence and climb a tree as well as I could, and we found our way into the topmost branches of the tall trees at Hillside. She was the most beautiful girl runner I ever saw. We were fond of contests in rope skipping to see which could hold out the longest in that vigorous exercise. We had many races, too, with our hoops, which we especially enjoyed. In the berry season, our expeditions to the berry pasture were about twice a week and a great source of delight. In those days the commercial spirit had not attained the tremendous grip which it holds today on all branches of industry, and the meadows and pastures, with their rich fruitage of huckleberries, blue berries and black berries, were free to all for the picking, no toll ever being demanded by the owners of the ground. We took special pains to take along pails and baskets as nearly equal in their holdings as possible, for we had most exciting contests as to which could fill the pail quicker. I remember one day we were close by Louisa. We had been pressing each other very closely in the contest as to which pail would be filled first, when my foot stumbled over some impediment and I measured my length upon the ground in such a manner that my clothing was richly ornamented with berry stains. Louisa, who always saw the ludicrous side of everything, said, "You look like a huckleberry rollypolly." I remember as I went down, in my despair over my defeat in getting ahead of Louisa, I allowed a vulgar word to escape my lips. From my earliest recollection of myself I had never before permitted such a misdemeanor. Any approach toward vulgarity or profanity repelled me at once, and I had no future use for the boys who did use it. As the word escaped my lips, I looked into Louisa's face and saw thereon an expression I have never forgotten. She said nothing, but there was a lesson in that look which lasted me for a long time. The entire party generously joined in filling my pail, and despite my mishap, we wended our way home, a merry, joyful party, soon to revel in dear "Marmee's" delicious berry pies, puddings and cakes." The following manuscript by Willis recollects one of Bronson Alcott's Sunday 'Table Talks', which had a lasting influence on Willis and which contains a distillation of Alcott's philosophy and Transcendentalism: "One of the earliest of Mr. Alcotts Table Talks made so profound an impression upon my mind that I have retained a vivid memory of it ever since. It was strikingly unlike anything to which I had ever listened. It began thus: - Nothing can be more self-evident than the fact that we who dwell upon this planet Earth are dependent upon its laws for our existence. The plant that grows in our garden is not more dependent upon the soil than are we upon our union with matter. The physical requirements that ally us to humanity making us at one with all mankind are the necessities of our earthly origin. Could we imagine a being not dependent on food or air for existence we could not recognize him as kindred with ourselves. Many of us sigh for an Elixir of Life that we may feel no more the pressure of toil and anxiety that precedes harvest and vintage; but the burden is upon us all. Cruel and irksome as the chain may seem at times that binds our necessities to matter, yet it holds us all and compels our servitude. The fact that we are mortal is a lesson that is daily repeated to our consciousness. If we choose to forget it in our exalted moods Nature forces our conclusions and compels us to remember that in one department of our being we are but dust. We find however, that the plants that grow in our garden are allied to something besides the soil. From whence come the wondrous colors that reflect the golden glory of the morning, or the exquisite tints of the sunset hour? The light through its electric and magnetic power feeds the tissues with its combined essences, and they vibrate in unison with the vibrations of light and there is bloom and beauty, as well as form and substance. The rose attracts by its own individual life, just such sustenance as shall develop its own individual beauty; it will have no other. It presents to us its Auroral blush because it retains in its cup all the other rays giving forth the red-tinted ones only. Tell me why one rose is red, another close by it is white, still another pink or by what power each give forth from its delicate petals its own individual rays, and you can go far toward telling me what God is. We can not fail to see that even our garden is full of individual life. Everything in it – even the minutest weed – has its own individual life. By no possible effort can we make a maple tree grow from the seed of an elm, and thus we find that life is something more than more than matter, and even its most insignificant form can reveal to us divine order, grace and beauty. And yet, although the material realm of Nature, holds each one of us in bondage to her inexorable laws, something whispers to our consciousness that we are outside of it all, that there is something within us that is above mere matter. We are conscious of desires, of longings and cravings that are beyond our appetites. Even in the commonest acts of life we know that we are seeking something besides that which is purely sensuous. Closely as the chain of our earthly necessities holds us and compels our servitude, yet we feel a higher power claiming also its service. The food we eat today becomes our power of thought tomorrow, and we feel the compulsion of a sphere that closely touches our sensuous sphere of thought and feeling. Science, of late years, has been performing many most beautiful and most interesting experiments, has elaborated many poetic theories showing how thought rises out of matter, how brain-force is evolved from crude, coarse material. How the food we eat becomes blood and muscle, and electric nerve-force and magnetic life culminating in thought. How few of us realise the grandeur of the simple, common place act of eating. How few sit down to a meal as if it were a solemn sacrament through which we are daily enacting within ourselves the beautiful miracle of Divine Humanity. Our spiritual life is continually being drawn out of – evolved from – the material life by the one law of motion, which is attraction. Our forces are being continually used to outwork the divine. The simple process of thought is the god-like power in man. Hence is it not immensely important that we should select our food from a higher stand-point than that of mere gratification of the palate? Let no one think that that the above is a verbatim report of this talk of Mr. Alcotts it is an embodiment in my own language of some of its cardinal points that made a profound impression upon my young mind because of their utter dissimilarity to anything I had ever before heard. I had never dreamed that one of the most commonplace events of our daily life – the eating of three meals a day – had any relevancy whatever to high spiritual truths or any other object than satisfying the demands of hunger. So late as 1894 I was delivering a course of parlor lectures in St. Louis, Mo. On the Relation of Spiritual Laws to Every Day Life. In the midst of one of my lectures there came floating into my mind several of the points made by Mr. Alcott in the above talk, and I made use of them crediting them to him. This brought out the – to me – very interesting fact that in my audience were several persons who listened to Mr. Alcott's talks on his first experimental trip to the West more than half a century before. When they learned that I had been so intimately associated with the family in my youth, they insisted upon my giving them an evening especially devoted to recollections of them, and some of their distinguished Concord friends." The manuscript "Mr. Alcott as a Prophet" contains recollections of the Alcott's not included in Willis' published memoir. Willis also relates the extent to which his association with Bronson Alcott influenced the course of his own thought and later life. "The germ of the gift of prophecy lies in every human soul. It is one of those spiritual gifts that the great Apostle of Christianity commanded his disciples, and followers to covet earnestly… Spirituality, Patriotism, Liberty can make no high revelations of themselves to a selfish soul. It is only when a man realizes that divine sense of the destiny of the world that comes from a profound conviction that it is God's world, and feels the unselfish love of his soul going out to all mankind, that he can be called in the highest sense a Reformer, a Patriot, or a true lover of Liberty. Soul-liberty means freedom from the slavery of selfishness, of personal aggrandizement, and of wrong in all its forms, and such a man pre-eminently was Amos Bronson Alcott. … As children we had many proofs of Mr. Alcott's possession of the gifts of seership that filled us with wonder, and surprise. I remember on one occasion I went up to Concord to pass Christmas with them. It was a bitter cold season and they were rather short of wood – had barely enough to carry them over Sunday. I think this was on Friday. A bitter cold storm was raging. There came a rap at the door, and an opening it, there stood a poor child illy clad to beg a little wood, for the baby was sick, and the father was on a drunken spree. I will give the story in Louisa's words written to a mutual friend "My mother hesitated at first as we also had a baby. Very cold weather was upon us, and a Sunday to be gotten through before more wood could be had. My father said, "Give half our stock, and trust in Providence; the weather will moderate, or wood will come". Mother laughed, and answered in her cheery way, "Well, their need is greater than ours, and if our half gives out we can go to bed and tell stories". So a generous half went to the poor neighbor, and a little later while the storm still raged and we were about to cover our fire to keep it, a knock came, and a farmer who usually supplied us with wood appeared, saying anxiously, "I started for Boston with a load of wood, but it drifts so I want to go home. Wouldn't you like to have me drop the wood here? It would accommodate me, and you needn't hurry about paying for it." "Yes." Said Father, and as the man went off, he turned to Mother with a look that much impressed us children with his gifts as a seer, "Didn't I tell you wood would come if the weather did not moderate?" After the tragical termination of the Anthony Burns affair he wrote in his journal the following prophecy. "In the evening I read the New York 'Tribune'. Alas for poor Hungary! But the Demon has sway some quarter century longer, - then to lay himself fairly, and give Liberty full scope and prevailing." This was in 1849, and within ten years commenced a series of events that startled the world and widely extended the sphere of liberty. Let us briefly review some of the events that so strikingly fulfilled this prophetic declaration of Mr. Alcott's … Before the close of the first decade of Mr. Alcott's prescient quarter of a century had passed, John Brown had rendered valiant service in helping to free Kansas from the grasp of the slave oligarchy, and had struck the blow in Virginia that sent consternation into the heart of the South, and hastened the coming of that terrible baptism of fire and of blood that led to the issuance of Lincoln's Emancipation proclamation. Nearly all of these wonderful events to which we so briefly referred occurred within the interim of time between 1849 – the date of the prophecy – and 1874. …Mr. Alcott believed that the world of spirit and the world of matter are simultaneously progressing toward a higher condition of divine harmony, and steadily, through this concerted action, are bringing nearer the day when justice and righteousness shall rule triumphantly in church and state, and the nations of the earth shall dwell together as one great Brotherhood in the bonds of Peace and Love. …" The manuscript continues with an examination of Alcott's philosophy follows in form and substance the published version of the chapter 'Alcott the Philosopher' in Willis' memoir, with the exception of an extensive section describing Alcott's Sunday "Table Talks" and explanations given by Alcott himself to Willis on various aspects of his philosophy: "… But I got at the heart of Mr. Alcott's philosophy far more fully from his pure, beautiful life than from anything that ever issued from his pen, for he lived his philosophy, and also from the little talks he gave us children from time to time – mostly on Sunday afternoons. On such occasions he laid aside his grandiloquent diction, and in plain, but elegant English, he discoursed in such a manner that we older children had no difficulty whatever in comprehending him. I recall the general tenor, and much of the phraseology of some of these delightful talks. On one occasion he made this assertion: "There are no limitations to ideas, but there are certain axiomatic principles from which must spring all true ideas, and on the basis of which all principles rest. A departure from these is an emergence at once into difficulties and doubts; into uncertainties and mischances that leave the soul no rest or security". "But," I said "how can one know these axiomatic principles?" He replied, - "They are the light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world. They appeal to every consciousness. It is not because men mistake them that they build upon them errors of philosophy or religion, but because they seek to warp or bend these truths so simple that none need mistake them, to suit conditions that do not accord with them. That is, they endeavor to take these foundation stones out of the Temple of Truth and fit them into a structure of their own." "I will give you two or three axiomatic principles that will be sufficient for your guidance through life, but will be of no avail to you unless you strive to exemplify them in your lives – to make them basic principles on which to build your character …" Upon these principles so generally admitted by the religious world, Mr. Alcott claimed had been raised innumerable false structures, and innumerable false theological conceptions; among them – Total Depravity, an Endless Hell of Physical Torture. Immediate Sanctification making it possible for a soul steeped in crime to go, even from a scaffold, directly into the supernal joys of the highest heaven, and all those so-called schemes- as he designated them – for making the future seem an unnatural condition, a dead thing far removed from the living present. As he talked of that transcendent spiritual nature within the human body called the soul, his language became wonderfully eloquent, and his face grew radiant. He defined it as a spiritual entity that lives on after the body is dead in higher spheres, subject to the same laws of moral, social and intellectual being that governed it before the chemical process of dissolution that we call death, had released it from the mortal body. "Beautiful glimpses have been given to the world of the power of this immortal entity in man when it attains ascendancy over the lower departments of his being, and becomes fully exemplified in his life. Heroes and saints have testified of its beauty but a soul grand enough to exemplify it fully – where has it been found? … Mr. Alcott manifested ever a tender regard a loving admiration that amounted almost to worship towards Jesus. I asked him one day if he thought Jesus held any vital relation to the living present. I can recall but little of his reply, but the note of it was that he believed that he held just as real and just as vital a relationship to humanity to day as he did the day he died a martyr to his principles. He said that unfaltering faith in the eternity of the spirit of man, with the eternity of the spirit of man, with all its attributes, all its faculties and powers, compelled him to believe in the inter-penetration of the two spheres of being – the spiritual and the natural – and through the great law of sympathy it was possible for us to come under the special individual influence and guidance of Jesus himself. This was to me an intensely interesting conversation. But he startled me by declaring that any heroic soul may assert what Jesus asserted of himself – that he is Lord and Creator of the world; because every hero-soul is inspired with the fact that all life, and all thought are resident in the infinite because found within himself who is a part of the infinite. Truly may a man say, "I am the cause and producer of all things," for you can place no man outside of infinity. …" The collection contains a manuscript draft of chapter on Fruitlands, Bronson Alcott's failed Utopian experiment, from Willis' memoir. The manuscript draft is lengthier than the published version and includes an account of Bronson Alcott and Charles Lane's visit to Brook Farm, not published in Alcott Memoirs: "About this time Alcott and Lane made a trip to Boston, partly on business, but I think mainly to visit the Brook Farm Community at West Roxbury. Mr. Lane by no means took the same view of it that many of its most distinguished members did. His criticisms upon it are quite caustic. He said: - "We went out one evening to Roxbury where we found eighty or ninety persons playing away their youth and daytime in a miserable, joyous, frivolous manner. There are not above four or five who could be selected as really and truly progressive beings. Most of the adults are there to pass a good time, the children are taught languages, etc. The animals occupy a prominent position, there being no less than sixteen cows besides four oxen, a herd of swine a horse or two, etc. The milk is sold in Boston, and they buy butter to the extent of five hundred dollars a year. We had a pleasant summer evening conversation with many of them, but it is only in a few individuals that anything deeper than ordinary is found. The Northampton community is one of industry; the one at Hopedale aims at practical theology; this of Roxbury is one of taste; yet it is the best which exists here and perhaps we shall have to say it is the best which can exist." … Just after their trip to Brook Farm Alcott and Lane went to New York and in connection with the visit we have the following delicious bit of gossip taken from a letter by Mrs. Lydia Maria Child. "A day or two after Theodore Parker left Alcott and Lane called to see me. I asked what brings you to New York? 'I don't know' said Mr. Alcott, 'it seems a miracle that we are here'. Mr. Child and John Hopper went to hear a discussion between them, and W. H. Channing. I asked Mr. Child what they talked about. 'Lane divided man into three states – the disconscious, the conscious and the unconscious. The disconscious is the state of a pig; the conscious the baptism by water; and the unconscious is the baptism by fire. I laughed, and said, "Well, how did the whole discussion affect your mind? 'Well after I heard them talk a few minutes, I'll be cursed if I knew I had any mind at all'… Distressed by the burden that pressed so heavily upon his devoted wife in having to prepare three meals a day for sixteen hungry mouths, besides all the other household duties, Mr. Alcott took upon himself the office of bread-maker. The bread was made of a mixture of barley and graham-meal, and to make it pleasant to the eye , if not to the palate, he fashioned the loaves into the shape of animals and divers other forms as his fancy dictated. In baking nothing kept its shape, and they came out of the oven totally unlike anything ever seen before in the heavens above or the earth beneath. I suggested that this must have been pure transcendental bread, for certainly it was something "outside the range of the human intellect or human experience", which I believe is one of the dictionary definitions of that term. I asked my friend how the bread tasted. He laughingly replied, "Your question baffles my descriptive powers." The collection includes numerous manuscript notes and drafts on the Alcott's evidently gathered by Willis for inclusion in his book, some of which are of considerable interest. "The Pathetic Family was the title Louisa first thought of giving to the history of the family she was contemplating writing. She afterwards changed it to Little Women." "The story of the Tramp has been widely circulated and I think denied but I [was] in Concord at the time of its occurrence and I introduce it here as it is so strikingly illustrative of Mr. Alcott's child like simplicity of character his benevolent impulses and his trusting faith in human nature. One day when the family were all out save Mr. Alcott a typical tramp called at the door and rehearsing a pitiful story of a sick wife and several starving children asked Mr. Alcott to give him a dollar to purchase food and medicine with. Mr. Alcott replied that he hadn't a dollar in his possession but he had a gold piece and he gave the man his gold piece. I am not sure as to its denomination but I think it was a ten dollar piece. The next day his gold piece came back to him. I think through the mail. Evidently the Tramp in thinking the matter over was so impressed by the manner of the donor that his conscience smote him and he returned the gift so ignominiously obtained. The incident made a strong impression upon my mind because I had so frequently heard Mr. Alcott affirm that there was no human being however low and vile that had not within him a latent spark of divinity that was surely destined sooner or later to burst into a redemptive flame …" Willis corresponded late in his life with Clara Gowing, one of Louisa May Alcott's Concord schoolmates and friends. Gowing published her own memoir of the Alcotts entitled: "The Alcotts as I knew them". The collection contains retained typescript copies of his letters to her, in one of which he reminisces with her on their time amongst the Alcott's and the character "Laurie" and Willis' claims as its inspiration: "Dec. 9, 1913 Dear Miss Gowing, … Indeed I do remember you though I had to think back for a few minutes, for I had forgotten your name; but it came to me so vividly after a little that I recalled even your looks… I remember those scenes of our childhood very clearly. On memory's tablet they are indelibly recorded. The article you saw in the paper was written without my knowledge or consent and contains many misstatements. I could never have consented to the appearance of so sensational an article about myself. It was written by a young newspaper reporter here with whom I have had but a slight acquaintance. I was drawn to him by sympathy because he is in wretched health and limited financial resources. Just before the drama of Little Women came here the last time he saw his opportunity to make money out of the theatre co. that was to produce the play and without consulting me at all wrote that article. My surprise and vexation when I saw it was very great. My first impulse was to write to the paper that published it an indignant protest; but I was too ill to bear the excitement of the thing, and then too I reflected that it might be the means of the poor fellows losing his position so I have silently ignored it. I had talked with him about the Alcotts and my book, that was all. Yes, I am the Lewellyn Hovey who was in close relations of intimacy with the Alcotts for ten or twelve years, first in Still River Village, Harvard, then in Concord and later in Boston. I was the only boy that was in the family during all those years with the single exception of Billy Lane, the son of the Englishman who furnished the money for that disastrous experiment at Fruitlands. He was in Concord on a visit to the children one summer that I was there but only for ten days or a fortnight. I was a participant in nearly all the scenes that are described in the book up to the time of Lizzie's death. I went to Europe about that time and that broke up my close relations with family. The first summer that I met them, I gave the name of Hovey. This was my mother's maiden name. She died in giving me birth. I was her first child and my father died before I was two years old. I was brought up by my grandmother Hovey and as a child I was fond of calling my self by her name rather than by my fathers, but I was christened Willis, and of course as I grew older I had to take my legal name. But soon after I first knew them I told them that my last name was Willis and that I belonged to an old Boston family by that name, and it was found that the rich banker of Boston, whose father married Mrs. Alcott's sister was of the same family and that I was really a distant relative, and the girls who were always ready to celebrate everything made a celebration of this and we had a lot of fun over it. Now as to my being Laurie as I told you further back I never claimed to be because I knew that Louisa had indignantly denied it and claimed that it was a Polish boy she met in New York or abroad. I know of two other parties that she wrote to and told them they were Laurie. Neither of them did she ever see until long after all the real events narrated in Little Women had transpired. A few years ago there appeared in the Ladies Home Journal a lengthy article sent them by a man out west who claimed that he was the Laurie of the book, and in support of his claim he published several facsimiles of letters she had written him addressing him as Laurie and telling him he was the Laurie. They were evidently facsimiles of her writing which was peculiar and marked by a striking individuality of its own. When I heard of the death of Louisa and her father I was confined to my bed crippled by a very severe accident I met with. As I read the sad tidings in my evening paper I thought to myself that from my recollections of the family I might write a very interesting paper to be given in public the proceeds of which would enable me to do more for worthy charities than my own resources admitted of my doing. On my bed I wrote a lecture that I have delivered before thousands of people. It was always been most enthusiastically received. I consecrated it to the above purpose and have faithfully kept to it, often paying my own incidental expenses in getting from place to place, and thus I have been instrumental in putting a great deal of money into the treasury of the Lord. … Two distinguished educators here urged me to have it published as a text book for schools, saying there was a dearth of books giving such vital descriptions of distinguished individuals and such indisputable proofs of close personal relationship with them. I have been urged on all sides to write a book giving my reminiscences of distinguished people I have known. It seems to have been in my destiny ever since I was ten years old to have come into close personal relationship with distinguished people both at home and abroad. I decided after this lecture that I would do so and I went right to work on it taking my Alcott paper as the nucleus of it, and extending that to take in many of their noted friends whose acquaintance I made through them, Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne and others. I had gotten it about half laid out when the infirmities of my 84 years began to press so heavily upon me. I was compelled to give up my work and I have not been able to resume it since. It is about half done and I much fear I shall not live to complete it for I am losing ground steadily. And now I have bit of surprise for you. The newspaper article to which you referred met the eye of John Pratt Alcott in Boston. He immediately wrote me a very brief but curt letter demanding that I send him the proofs that I was the Laurie of the book. I wrote him simply that I had never made any such claim; that I had been exploited by a sensational newspaper reporter. Then I told him that I had written a paper that I had delivered before many people and that these people had insisted upon it that I was Laurie and that I had replied that Louisa denied it. Then I told him of my close intimacy with the family and gave him many incidents he had never known of. Last Saturday morning to my astonishment who should walk in upon me but John Pratt Alcott. My letter so interested him that he came on to see me. I had a three hours talk with him in the morning and two hours in the afternoon. I read him extracts from my paper in which he was intensely interested. He apologized for writing me so curt a letter, said he had been greatly annoyed by claimants, especially by the one who wrote the Philadelphia article. He proposed to collaborate with me in my books should I get well enough to resume work upon it, by supplying extracts from his grandfather's journal. He even went so far when he bade me goodbye as to say "I am inclined to think I have found the real Laurie". I alone understand the secret of Louisa's strange versatility regarding Laurie. And now I want to ask you if you took part in the Tableauxs that we got up the first summer I was with them in Concord, or was that before your intimacy with the girls began? I also want to know if you were present at the play the night the cot bed that formed the dress circle of the audience collapsed and the tower fell. Dec. 11. I have had to have three sittings at tis letter with long rests between, it tires me to write. I shall hope to hear from you again. If you were present at those first tableauxs please give me your recollections of them. There were twelve groups and I can only recall six of them. I want to make an article about them. We got them up entirely ourselves and they were given before an audience composing the elite of Concord. I wish I could see your book. I presume it is out of print. If so I wish you would send e your copy by mail. I will take the best of care of it and return it paying the postage both ways. I never heard of it nor of the one by Miss Moses. I am sending you in this two pictures of myself. See if you can find in the photograph taken recently at 84 any traces of the boy of 14 …" "Dec. 23, 1913 Dear Miss Gowing, It was lovely in you to send me your two books as a gift. … You must have wondered at my delay in acknowledging them until this late day. They found me quite prostrated. That Saturday with John Alcott was too much for me. I was deeply moved by it emotionally and since my last severe illness I have to avoid anything that appeals strongly to my emotional nature. The fact that I was so unexpectedly brought face to face with a living bona fide member of that dear family whom I have held so long in my heart of hearts was in itself quite exciting … I enjoyed "The Alcotts as I knew them" very much. It refreshed my memories of many incidents related and revived others…" "Dear Miss Gowing, … Your letter recalled the funny incident of Louisa's delay in greeting me that time, and her rushing in in her impetuous way and prostrating herself in Oriental fashion. It was a shock to hear that you were almost as old in years as I am, for strange to say I had not once thought of the long lapse of years since those early days in connection with you, and had only thought of you as the girl you were at that early period. I am getting better they all tell me but it seems dreadfully slow. "Little Women" is running in Boston to good houses I see by the Boston paper. There are four companies out giving the play and John Alcott must have a gold mine in it…" The collection includes several letters to Willis written by John Sewell Pratt Alcott, Louisa May Alcott's nephew and adopted son. These were written 1913-1914, and they reference their meeting which Willis related to Miss Gowing in the correspondence quoted above, as well as a proposed jointly authored book on Willis' life with the Alcotts and his friendship with Louisa. The book never advanced belonged to the planning stages due to Willis' illness and subsequent death. "Brookline, November 30, 1913 My Dear Mr. Willis, Allow me to thank you for your letter which reached me safely and which I shall prize most highly. I assure you it was a great treat to hear from one who was such a friend of the family in the old days and I am very anxious to meet and have a good talk with you, and would therefore ask if it would be agreeable to have me call upon you on next Saturday December the sixth, I find that I can probably get away on Friday and reach Rochester Saturday morning, this would give us a chance for a long talk about old times and I could return on the night train on Saturday… it is so seldom that I have an opportunity to meet an old friend of the family who knew them when Mother and Aunt Louisa were girls that I feel I [must] meet you and know you better. Your letter was a great relief to me also for we have had a few very unpleasant experiences with men who have really claimed to be the original of Laurie and your letter disclaiming all thought of such an idea was so different that I almost feel that you are more entitled to that privilege than the others. … John Alcott" [Feb. 3, 1914] "My Dear Doctor Willis, I hope you will pardon my delay in answering your very kind letter but I have been terribly busy since my return and have had hardly a minute to myself, I certainly meant to have written before this to thank you for the most interesting and beautiful day I have spent in many years. I can assure you it was a great pleasure a d an honor to know you and meet one who knew my Mother and Aunt so well, so many years ago. I am afraid that we cannot use material taken bodily from the little book as that will probably be published by itself, we can however use some of the extracts from diaries and there is I think plenty of Alcott material to select from and as soon as we get over the Christmas rush and the excitement of the opening of the Little Women Play in Boston I will set to work getting material together and shall try to run on to Rochester sometime in January for another treat of a day with you. I am sending you under separate cover a little calendar in memory of our beautiful day together, and hope you will enjoy it. … John Alcott" [Dec. 23, 1914] "My Dear Dr. Willis, … 'Little Women' has been and gone and while the Play received beautiful notices from all the papers and everyone who saw it was very enthusiastic over it, still the engagement here was a disappointment, the matinees were very successful but the evening performances were not very well attended, and instead of staying for the full seven weeks as originally planned the engagement was cut to five. I had hope and rather expected that when the company came to Boston, Miss Alcott's home, that the Play would have a long run to crowded houses, but I am afraid that Boston people are not as loyal to her memory as the people of most any other city in the Country… I have had no time to start gathering material for our book, as yet but shall hope to talk it all over with you when we meet again. … John Alcott" The collection also has manuscripts by Willis on the subject of Women's Rights and the Suffrage cause. These include retained copies of letters to newspaper editors and lengthier manuscripts on the "Woman Question", and recollections of women he met through his association with the Alcotts, including Lucy Stone, Margaret Fuller. Willis had been a lifelong proponent of Women's Rights, including the right to equal suffrage. These views were shared by his friends the Alcotts. Willis took a sea voyage from Boston to Brazil in 1854-1855 and recorded the trip in a manuscript journal. His destination was Rio Grande, in Brazil's southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul. Willis' journal contains an excellent account of travel to Richmond, Virginia and on the James River, visiting plantations and towns, while on the southbound voyage. Willis records his impressions of enslaved African Americans he encountered and his interactions with them. Willis entitles his journal as follows: "The Journal of A Voyage in the Barque May Queen Capt. Edward M. King Esq. From Boston to Rio Grande South America via Richmond, Virginia. 1854. Kept by Frederic L. Willis, for the benefit of his friend Frank G. Russell & by his particular request." Willis' journal is written dos-a-dos fashion, the voyage south in front, and when the volume is flipped over the return voyage can be read. Willis departed from Boston aboard the May Queen on Monday September 11, 1854. "… was accompanied down by several friends. Mrs Dr Adams and daughter – Mr. & Mrs. Mann and children, C.D. Bradlee & Frank G. Russell. We had a fine ride but all too short. Managed to keep up a stout heart till it came time to say "good bye" when my fortitude gave way … After all had gone a feeling of desolation came over me… 5 p.m. Capt K came aboard sunshine beams from every feature of his round jolly face. Mates wife & child left in the boat wh brought the Capt down. The mate is said to be as savage as a meat axe. He certainly is a loving husband & tender father… After tea walked the deck with Capt K for two hours in social converse. … Turned out at 2 in the morning to see the harbor & shipping by moonlight a most romantically beautiful scene. The city over wh rested a solemn stillness, the church spires pointing like white fingers upward to the great one who created all this loveliness… so much for my first day & night on ship board." Willis describes the events of shipboard life as he struggles to adapt to life on the sea, complete with the usual descriptions of sea sickness and monotony endured by the novice sea traveler. Friday 15th … we were fast approaching Cape Henry … the Capt seemed anxious for a pilot


Documents pertaining to an 18th Century Virginia Legal Case involving Bushrod Washington, nephew of President George Washington, selling a Slave in exchange for a Questionable Paper Note connected to financier and Signer Robert Morris, 1798

By [Washington, Bushrod]

4 documents, 6 pp., 19cm x 16 cm to 20 x 24 cm, three manuscript on paper, with one partially printed document accomplished in manuscript; various hands; dated 17-18 September 1798. An unusual collection of documents with a grand backstory involving several American founders. Collection includes the following documents: 1. Printed and Manuscript document for "The Execution of the within Commission will appear by the Depositions hereto annexed," (Alexander vs Morris), signed T. Tinsley, dated 17 September 1798. 2. Letter of Benj. Harrison, Esq, att'y to Rob't Morris, to William Alexander, Esq.; with note of James McClurg stating that Robert Canington delivered this letter to Alexander, signed by Benj. Harrison, & James McClurg, dated Richmond 17 September 1798. 3. Deposition of Robert Campbell, signed by Robert Campbell, Jno. Barret, James McClurg, dated 18 September 1798. 4. Deposition of James McClurg & Deposition of Jno. Barret; signed by James McClurg, Jno. Barret, Wm. Du Val, with second signatures of each; dated 18 September 1798. Depositions in the complicated and interesting case of William Alexander vs Robert Morris before the Virginia Court of Chancery. James McClurg (1746-1823), who argued for elective monarchy before the Constitutional Convention, testifies that he purchased 'a negro' from Bushrod Washington (1762-1829), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court and nephew of George Washington, using an immature five-thousand dollar note drawn 'by either John Nicholson to Robert Morris or by Morris to Nicholson' that McClurg had purchased at auction from Robert Campbell. McClurg was an American physician who served as a delegate to the Philadelphia Convention and as the 18th, 21st, and 24th mayor of Richmond, Virginia. McClurg's lifelong friendship with Thomas Jefferson dated from their school days. The depositions (of McClurg and Campbell) were taken by Benjamin Harrison, VI (1755-1799), son of the Declaration of Independence signer Benjamin Harrison, V (1726-1791), and brother of President William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), as well as the great uncle of President Benjamin Harrison (1833-1901). Harrison VI was a close friend of financier Robert Morris (1734-1806), a relationship that he would keep until his death. Morris served as a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, the Second Continental Congress, and the United States Senate, and he was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, and the United States Constitution. From 1781 to 1784, he served as the Superintendent of Finance of the United States, becoming known as the "Financier of the Revolution". On a separate leaf, Harrison VI writes to William Alexander, agreeing to take depositions from McClurg, the auctioneer Robert Campbell, and one Samuel McCraw, at McClurg's home. The point of the deposition is that McClurg purchased the $5,000 note at a deep discount at auction, and then used it to tender an amount equivalent to 1000 guineas for the slave. The matter of the notes hinged on whether they could be used at full value or at a discount, knowing that Morris was in no condition to buy them back. The Court of Chancery found in Morris' favor, as did the Court of Appeals in 1801. This matter is part of a much larger legal case brought against Morris by William Alexander concerning a big tobacco deal with the Farmers General of France, that Alexander believed he had a claim to. William Alexander was the son of an Edinburgh, Scotland, banker. He lived in Saint-Germain, France, until 1783, when he moved to Virginia. Throughout the 1780s, Alexander and Robert Morris were involved in several schemes to monopolize the tobacco trade between the United States and France.


Autograph Letter Signed, Valparaiso, Chile, June 18, 1827, to his mother, c/o S. B. Rawle, Philadelphia, per ship William and Henry, Capt. Low, Boston

By Ruschenberger, William W. M.

quarto, 4 pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, second leaf of the letter sheet is quite worn, and lacks a portion, which affects about 18 lines, as well as small portions at fold joints and a few lines at the lower portion of that page, else in good legible condition. W. W. M. Ruschenberger, the future, famed United States Naval surgeon and scientist, writes as a 19 year-old Surgeon's mate on his first Naval cruise to South America, vividly describing collision and shipwreck of American vessels, and decries Bolivar as the "tyrant of the South". The teenaged Ruschenberger had just received his appointment as a Surgeon's mate in the U.S. Navy; he wrote this letter to his mother on his first cruise to South America. On his return, he would graduate from the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, be commissioned a US Navy Surgeon and set off on the first of several long cruises to the Pacific, during which he would acquire the life-long habit of keeping painstaking diaries. He would recount his Pacific voyages in two now classic books of travel: Narrative of a Voyage round the world during the years 1835, 36 and 37: including a narrative of an embassy to the Sultan of Muscat and the King of Siam, and Three Years in the Pacific, including notices of Brazil, Chile, Bolivia, Peru. These were particularly valuable because of his scientific expertise. During his long Naval career, he also published an entire series of basic scientific books on Geology, Botany, Ornithology, Herpetology, Mammology and Anatomy. This letter gives a hint of the writing talents that would later make his books classic travel accounts. Also notable is his patrician New England prejudice against the South American "Liberator" Simon Bolivar. " … Here I am again staring you in the face with another long epistle after having so often promised to be silent, but we can never foresee what is to come, and tho you may not have this two weeks before you see me, the occurrences and opportunity compel me again to trouble you and make me think it almost a crime to let it pass by. In my last (June 7th per Yellet) I gave you an idea of the heavy rain but what I must now add is still more shocking to the feelings of humanity. The schooner by which you receive the last left the port just in the commencement of a Norther. (This name is given to the wind coming from the North and always attended with rain and a heavy swell in the bay, so that vessels are endangered at their moorings, of dragging or even the cables are massed off like thread by he tremendous waves made by the vessel during this wind. The harbor is so located that gales from all other points save the North do not affect its safety, but from that quarter it receives the heavy rolls of the sea and it is almost incredible the height to which they rise. On the 4th inst. the rain commenced and on the 7th immense quantities of rain fell and the wind at night blew almost a hurricane. About 9 in the morning of the 8th the scene of misery here commenced. From the front of the hill we saw ship American Hero, having parted her cables lying across the bows of the William Penn, at every sea tearing and grinding down the bows of the latter in the most horrid manner. We all decided that both ships must inevitably come on shore together, but we were fortunately mistaken; by some one of those unforeseen accidents which are so often in our favour when we think everything lost, the Hero fell gradually round and cleared her, but encountered several vessels as she drifted towards the shore. The Brig Canada of Baltimore broke her chains and hemp cables and drifted against the Brig Rob Roy of London; they separated and the Canada dropped another anchor and would possibly have ridden out the gale, but the Rob Roy, again came in contact with her and the last cable broke! The three vessels came, every well nearer the rocks; all was anxiety, everyone fearing the men would remain too long with their ships. They sill neared the breakers; the captains stood on the shore awaiting the shock that must perhaps ruin them forever. Three Americans had all their fortunes in two of the vessels and if thought they these vessels go into pieces the hard earnings of all my past life are lost. Every one was breathless with anxiety; the shore was crowded with foreigners and natives. The Canada and American Hero are close together in the breakers; they roll apart and then rush together - and again separating tear up the plank. The ropes are snapped and their cordage broken floats upon the wind. A second roll…breaks the bows and bowsprit of the Canada. Both vessels are deserted by their crews, excepting the mate of the American Hero, who fearful of censure remained by the ship at the imminent risk of his life. He alone stays upon the deck almost unconscious of his hazardous situation while the ship rides high and nearer the sand and Rocks on every swell. At length she strikes - she trembles - her masts quiver with the shock - she recovers and again she strikes the jutting rocks - the seams open and the water runs from them. The mate has now pulled off his clothes in order to swim. There comes a sudden surge and the foremast falls over the side with tremendous c rash and breaks into pieces. A second surge succeeds - the main mast quivers and falls direct for the head of the unfortunate master. "The mizzen falls at the same time and the man is lost in the ruins. That he was killed or knocked overboard was the opinion of every body present. Providence however interfered and at the end of 5 minutes he was again upon his legs. But alas he is bloody! All cry out to him to get nearer the bows being a safer place but he hears not tho not 20 yards from us on shore, so loud are the angry waves and wind! The wreck [wreaths?] in every part - her oaken timbers can no longer withstand the heavy sea that almost sweep the decks - her stern is washed away and she is broke in the middle. In vain do the natives endeavour to throw the laso to save the man! So near yet no possibility of rendering assistance! He throws a line towards the shore that only reaches a rock that, when the sea rolls back, is bare - a brave man rushes forward from the crowd to the rock, seizes the end of the line and if washed on shore by the returning swell holding fast however to the rope and this at the risk of his own life is the means of saving that of his unfortunate tho imprudent fellow man. The half drowned man lowers himself by his hands and swinging his legs over the rope, first one and then the other is safe at last on shore with but a slight wound of the scalp! What joy is manifested in every countenance! What numerous prayers are offered by the natives to their different saints for his delivery even from the very jaws of death! The Canada also is now a wreck on the sand and the Roy Boy, at one surge is cut through the middle of a projecting rock. "The gale shortly abated or the three vessels must have certainly gone to pieces and many others come on shore as several parted their cables heaving them up since to right them. The cargoes were all saved tho much damaged and what is worthy of remark, many articles sold for more at auction than if they had been regularly landed and disposed of at private sale. The storm did not entirely cease until the 10th. [incomplete paragraph]… A frightul addition is made to the former catalogue of distress on shore. The Almendral is entirely inundated. So bad were the roads that from 4th to the 13th the communication with the city was entirely suspended and now every mail informs us of the destruction of lives and property in the....of the Mapocho a whole village was swept away.....mostly drowned; and the city itself must have.... The loss cannot be yet known....count millions to pay the damage! Not in the memory of man has there Chile as we have just suffered. The...of which Santiago is built was converted into a....rushed on with more rapidity than a tor4rent the....quantities of stored wheat and flour we.....away and the city overflowed. An immense....of houses are destroyed as well the....hovel as the rich man's stately.... The fields are devastated and numerous...the victims of...the most lamentable scene of 'penury and woe'. All the southern part of the state has suffered - scarcely a village escaping more or less destruction. "The Peacock arrived in Callao the 14th of May and was to leave there for this Port about the 15th inst, so allowing the ordinary passage (20 days) she will be here on the 5th of July. Her stay here will be short and will probably leave here about the 10th so that about the 11th of October, I shall be at home. This is certain...and not vague rumour. "We hear that the tyrant of the South, Bolivar, disgusted with his warfare and heroism has left the balmy regions of South America for Europe but I suspect it to be only a political diversion to ripen some deep scheme. A man of his ambition would never abandon his power when about to crown his desires with success… [PS on address leaf:] a letter of introduction to a gentleman....Parry. He will probably introduce him to you. He has been sometime in the country engaged in mining and is about to engage the working of the gold mines of Carolina. I do not know whether I shall be able to write to Parry – if not you will be kind enough to tell him the news etc. Ship news: The ship Hope and the Heroine of Baltimore here to sail shortly for the leeward prts and then the latter to proceed home. The Mexican ship Asia of 64 guns still here to sail in about a month…The ship Emily will leave in a day or two for Callao. The [P?] and Vincennces are supposed to be still at Callao."


Engraver’s Specimen Workbook containing Specimens of this Baltimore Engraver’s Work c. 1819-1840s
seller photo

Engraver’s Specimen Workbook containing Specimens of this Baltimore Engraver’s Work c. 1819-1840s

By Bannerman, William W.

Quarto, commercial notebook 54 leaves of heavy brown paper, each leaf, often both recto and verso, as well as front and rear pastedowns, are mounted with examples of Bannerman's work, proof copies, steel engravings, drawings, watercolors and miscellaneous material executed by Bannerman. Accompanied by a sheet of paper seal impressions of the designs of Edward Stabler (1794 -1883). Bannerman has signed the book at least three times: once on the cover and again on the free endpapers. Original three-quarter leather over blue paste paper boards. The front board bears the following inscription: Wm. W. Bannerman. Specimen Book". Heavy wear to the binding; hinges broken; block broken; some pages are loose. Bannerman's personal record – kept as a scrap book – of his accomplished work seemingly encompassing his entire working life in Baltimore. The album consists of mounted examples ranging from book illustrations, commercial labels, cards, steel engravings, woodcuts, printed ribbons, an occasional typeface sample, and proof copies. The examples are mounted to the pages of the notebook in random fashion. Most are identified with Bannerman's name in the illustration. There are also a small number of original drawings and watercolors. Additionally, the volume contains drawings and several proofs of engravings by Bannerman's son John B. Bannerman. The volume also includes a sample page of an entirely engraved, illustrated writing manual, which appears to be unknown. William W. Bannerman, engraver, William Bannerman was a partner in the Baltimore firm of Medairy & Bannerman c. 1827-31; he appears to have worked on his own in Baltimore after that, his best known work being a series of engraved portraits of American statesmen for the U. S. Magazine and Democratic Review, 1840-45. Bannerman died about 1845/45, leaving his widow, who kept a fancy and household goods store for some years, and a son John B. Bannerman, who carried on the engraving business at the same address. Baltimore City Directories 1827-51; Stauffer, I, 14." Groce-Wallace, Dictionary of Artists in America 1564-1860, p. 26-27 "John B. Bannerman, engraver, probably the son of William W. Bannerman, engraver of Baltimore. He was working in Baltimore 1849-53 and in San Francisco 1856-60. Baltimore Business Directory 1849, 1851, 1853; San Francisco Business Directory and City Directory, 1856, 1858-60." Groce-Wallace, p. 26"


Autograph Letter Signed, Albany, New York, August 19, 1860 to his cousin, Daniel Wolfinger, Leitersburg, Maryland

By Murphy, William D.

New York supporter of the short-lived Constitutional Union Party details its strategy for blocking Lincoln's election, 1860. quarto, 4 pages, folded, in very good, clean condition, accompanied by original mailing envelope. "… whether Sam visited you on his way to or from the Baltimore National convention [of the Constitutional Union Party] … The political cauldron is beginning to boil fiercely here. We expect to have a hot time here as this state is conceded to be the great battle ground. As New York goes, this time, so will go the Union. The Constitutional Union men have formed a joint electoral ticket with the Douglas Democrats, who have conceded us ten electors on their ticket. Should this ticket succeed, of which there is scarcely any doubt, it will be achieving more even than you carry Maryland, she having only eight electors. This, I am sure, is far more desirable than running a separate electoral ticket, which could only result in our defeat, and the success of Lincoln. It is our design to effect the same kind of a union on all the local tickets throughout the state and in that manner will, also secure some members of Congress and members of the Legislature. I think now the election will go into the House, where Mr. Bell stands decidedly the best chance of an election especially if Mr. Lane should go into the Senate as one of the two highest candidates. In that case, the Republicans will have to vote for Bell in the House in order to prevent the election from going into the Senate, where, in that case, Lane would be successful. If, on the other hand, Mr. Everett should go to the Senate, as one of the two highest, the Republicans will again have to vote for Bell, in order to prevent the Democrats from electing Everett in the Senate. There is no way you can count out either Bell or Everett, should the election go into Congress, which is now likely to be the case." The Constitutional Union "third party" was formed primarily by conservative former Whigs from the South, who wanted to avoid Secession over the slavery issue, but refused to join either the Republican or Democratic Parties. At Baltimore, the Party nominated John Bell of Tennessee for President and Edward Everett of Massachusetts for Vice President, hoping to force an election in the House of Representatives by denying any candidate a majority in the Electoral College. The final result, however, was that the Republican Lincoln won nearly every Northern electoral vote, Bell carrying three states in the upper South and, while finishing with the second highest vote total in each remaining slave state, taking only 13% of the nationwide popular vote. Bell himself declared his support for the Confederacy after Fort Sumter, but other Constitutional Unionists remained loyal to the Union throughout the War. Murphy, a lawyer who was born in Maryland but moved to New York, was 28 when he was a delegate to the Constitutional Union Party Convention in Baltimore. After the Civil War began, while attending a People's Union Convention in Syracuse, he was denounced as a Secessionist, nearly mobbed by other delegates and expelled from the meeting. Post-war, he was elected to the New York State Assembly as a Democrat; in the 1880s, he was denounced as a "political adventurer" and a "dead-beat" by the Democratic Vice-Presidential nominee after suing that candidate for unpaid speech fees in the Midwest. After that, in his later years, he seems to have become a "silk stocking" Republican.


Autograph Letter Signed, Philadelphia, July 9, 1842 to Selden T. Scranton, Bedford Furnace, New Jersey

By Jordan, John, Jr.

Philadelphia banker ridicules President John Tyler as "imbecile tool of the Locofocos", 1842. quarto, three pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, formerly folded, top edge slightly ruffled, else in very good, clean and legible condition. "… Capt. Tyler is a fool. I have no doubt that he will veto any tariff bill the Whigs will pass. He's an imbecile tool of the Locofocos, into whose arms he has been preparing to throw himself for a year past. All things lead to show that the Movement of 1844 in favor of Henry Clay will result in the same manner as that of '40 for Tip [i.e. the late William Henry Harrison]. It seems indeed that we can only get a permanent tariff from bitter experience. The South in two years will cry out as lustily for it (except South Carolina) as ever we of the Middle and North …" The writer was the President of the Bank of the United States at Philadelphia, his antagonism for the Locofoco Democrats understandable, given their opposition to business monopoly and state banks. His reference to President John Tyler as "Captain" was an intended insult; during the War of 1812, Tyler organized a Militia Company to defend Richmond, Virginia against the British, commanding his regiment with that humble rank. He never saw combat and dissolved the company after two months, nevertheless receiving a land grant in the Midwest for his military service. Jordan's correspondent, Mr. Scranton, later started an ironworks in Pennsylvania – in a town named for his family. This later became the Lackawanna Iron & Coal Company, headed by his cousin, industrialist William Walker Scranton, whose grandson William Warren Scranton, would serve as Governor of Pennsylvania and US Ambassador to the United Nations after an unsuccessful bid for the Republican presidential nomination.


Diary of shipwright Leonard Ehret Williams, of Conway, Missouri, kept while working at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard during World War One, 1918

By Williams, Leonard Ehret

12mo, pocket diary, 134 manuscript pages bound in cloth, two days entries per page, text block separated from binding; wear to extremities, otherwise good, entries written in ink, in a legible hand; diary is not signed, but a note tucked in states the diary was written by Ehret Williams. And internal evidence and research on, all lead to Leonard Ehret Williams being our diary writer. The diary recounts our shipwright's everyday activities at work, the ships he works on, the types of jobs he does, getting hurt on the job, the hard work, interactions with other men at work, fight with a Jewish coworker ( the "Jew" [sic] was dismissed), he also recounts his social life, his friends and their activities like going to shows, concerts, visiting Fairmount Park, walking around downtown Philadelphia, etc. He also gives an account of the amount of his paychecks, when he gets raises, and what he spends his money on such as everyday expenses like carfare, every day necessities, or purchasing bonds, sending money back home, or going out at night with a woman he met named Marie Madden, who he started dating. The diary offers a look at a 20-year-old, later 21-year-old Midwesterner, who came to Philadelphia to work as a shipwright during World War One. Leonard Ehret Williams (1897-1918) Leonard Ehret Williams was born 23 March 1897 in Conway, Missouri. He was the son of Leonard B. Williams (1865-1932), a house carpenter, of Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky and Louisa Ellen Haymes (1870-1952) of Webster County, Missouri. Ehret was one of at least six children. He appears to have attended Conway High School, Conway, Missouri, before moving to Philadelphia to take work as a shipwright at the Philadelphia Naval Yard. On his World War One draft application of 1 June 1918 he was listed as a shipwright at the Navy Yard in Philadelphia. Williams mentions in his diary many of the ships he was working on at the Navy Yard: U.S.S. Henderson, U.S.S. Sterling, U.S.S. Stockton, and others, the histories of these ships show they had stops at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. The diary ends on 24 Sept 1918, because Williams became ill. He died a week later, on 2 October 1918, at Philadelphia's Jefferson Hospital. Records give his cause of death as "labor pneumonia", however, it is very possible that he may have succumbed to the influenza pandemic then ravaging the world. His family transported his body back to Missouri where he was buried at Twilight Church Cemetery at Conway, Laclede County, Missouri. Examples from the diary: "Jan. 1, 1918 Got up at 8:20 and began the new y3ear by taking a shave and a bath. Went to see New Year's parade after breakfast. Got some pictures of it. Bill came in the afternoon. Cleek and Bailey came to see about a room. Went to a show at Broadway with Duf. His treat. Began 'The Honorable Senator Sagebrush.' Started the year with $32.00 on bond, $16.80 cash, spent 40c for film and 54c for candy & drinks." "Jan 2, 1918 Worked on transport boat until about 4:00 then on Henderson boring holes in decking to 6:30. Talked to Steen again about raise. Don't know whether it di any good or not tho. Letter from home. Mary Paul and Mamma all wrote. Can't get used to the new in-law. Wrote a fatherly letter to Dolph. Spent 25c for candy, 15c for stamps and 2c for matches." "Jan 3, 1918 Worked to 4:30 on winch scuppers, then to 6:30 on linoleum carrying sandbags. Walked home. Cold was something awful. Got shoes out of hock, cost $1.65. Bought sweater from Gortner for $1.30. Read "Honorable Senator Sagebrush' a while. Had bad pain in back, hit the hay about 9:20." "Jan 4, 1918 Got the scupper job done before noon. Sent back on transport boat then to help Bill plug up. Worked to 4:30 only, & went out and got a haircut after supper, 25 cents. Spent 10c for horehound tablets and 5c for carfare. Read 'Hon. Sen.' Until about 9:15 to bed soon after." "Jan 5, 1918 Weather somewhat warmer today. Worked on transport boat until noon. Then on stage on Henderson awhile. Then back to transport to 4:30. Got postal card from Melva saying gift arrived. Got film and printed some pictures. Paid board. Left Mrs. Gowing me $1.80 Paid $1.10 for film and [Neperea] Solution, paid 10c for large bottle for solutions." "Jan 8, 1918 Worked to noon on linoleum. Then on margin around ventilator to 6:30. Clerk got time mixed. Counted Fri too much. Took 3 hrs off today to make up. Pay day got $35.42. Paid $28.00 on Liberty Bond. Brings it to $60.00. Spent 22c for canvas gloves and carfare. Got readers card from Phila Free Library and got first book. Mr. Tallman signed for me." "Jan 14, 1918 Still on Henderson, 6:30 again. Worked on strong backs to about 11:00 then with Bailey loading two motor boats to go to France as cargo. Brought home a piece of pine. Read to about 9:00 after supper. Then to bed. Spent 5c for carfare." "Feb 1, 1918 Colder today. Worked to noon only. Went up town sold bond for $96.54. Sent $100.00 home via American Express money order. Bought $24.80 of tools. Styed home eve. Spent 28c carfare, and 30c fee for A.Ex order. Bed about 9:45. Sent a short letter home with order." "Feb 5, 1918 5˚ below zero today and windy, didn't go to work it was so cold. Went to library a.m. Overcoat was stolen from chair in library, gloves in pockets. No trace of them whatever. Inconvenient? Very! Home p.m. Began 'Col. Carter of Cartersville,' by F.H. Smith after supper. Paid 3c for stamps for letter home and gave Ted 2c for his birthday." "Feb 12, 1918 Still fine weather. Moved to target rafts. Worked to 6:30. Moved to 2542 S. Broad St after supper with Gortner. Borrowed $7.00 from him to pay rent. Tried to patch old pants; no luck. It's awful to be a bachelor. Bed a little after 10:00. Spent 5c for carfare." "May 4, 1918 Cloudy today but very little rain. Worked to 4:30 only. Home, cleaned up, had supper and went down to see the little miss. Walked to City Hall and then on to Logan Square, then out to Market, had ice cream, down Chestnut and rode on home…. Good time on the whole. Spent 23c carfare, 40c for pictures, 30c ice cream, and 5c life savers. Bed about 12:45." "June 3, 1918 Clear and hot. Worked to noon only or rather 11:45. My adze got tangled up with my shin bone and the doc gave me 6 days' vacation. Am afraid it's going to be terribly sore. Hurt awfully bad after supper. Hobbled up and got pictures I took May 19 at Fairmount Park Some were pretty good. Cost 57c. Spent 10c carfare. Bed about 9:30." "June 7, 1918 Rainy greater part of the day. Stayed inside all day except to run up the Navy Recruiting office and back. Can get in the navy as second class carpenter's mate, or 1st class for service in France. Got my registration card duplicate from local board at Lebanon. Finished 'The Virginian.' Spent 10c carfare. Bed about 9:30." "June 14, 1918 Cloudy and a little rain during the days and a lot in eve. Worked to 6:30 on targets launched at 6:00. The old Jew 'reported' me to Steen and Steen believed it. I told him one of us must leave. Went to Roya's for supper and spent the eve. Saw my new sister for the first time. Like her fine. Home and bed about 12:00. Spent 30c carfare. Payday got $11.90. 14c pie." "June 15, 1918 Fine day. Worked to noon only but got pay until 4:30. Asked Smith to transfer me. He said to go back to work that he discharged the Jew on sight. Decided to await developments…" "June 18, 1918 Cloudy with some rain. Worked to 6:30 on targets counter boring with Maurice. Had it easy all day. Wrote a letter to Clyde after supper sending him a blank application in answer to his letter rec'd Sat. shaved and took a swim and massage afterwards; a case of preparedness. Bed about 10:00. Spent 10c carfare. Have heard nothing of Jew trouble yet."


Account and Commonplace Book of Quaker cabinet maker - carpenter Enoch Penrose, of Richland Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 1789-1814

By Penrose, Enoch

Folio, 60 manuscript pages, unbound, but stitched; first four leaves clipped, couple of other leaves clipped in half off; some pages dog-eared, tanned, some staining throughout; entries written in ink, in a legible hand; possibly the same hand throughout, irregularly dated 7 September 1789 to 16 April 1814. The first 36 pages of the volume comprise an exercise section for mathematics, neatly kept, having sections on Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Division of Money, Long Division of Whole Numbers, Compound Division, Of Reduction, Reduction Ascending, and of Troy Weight. This mathematics exercise section appears to be contemporaneous with the account/memorandum section, circa 1790s-1810s. The remaining 24 pages of the volume consists of an account book and memorandum book, the entries of which are dated irregularly between 7 September 1789 to 16 April 1814. The account book records various work done by Penrose in the areas of carpentry and cabinet making. It lists who he works for, what he is paid, what he did. Sometimes it simply says "x' number of days work, or carpentry work, other times it lists various items made such as a bedstead, stand, table, desk, chest, drawers, bureau, coffin, breckistabe (breakfast table?), etc., also mentioned are entries for various types of labor, such as: chopping wood, working at the wagon house, or at the shop, on a house, and farm work. He also mentions settling accounts with his father, and he receives meals from a Margaret Green. He worked for a Benjamin Green for several days, and these accounts are likely related. There are also seven pieces of manuscript notes and ephemera laid in. These items include 2 manuscript pages of the Penrose family genealogy (not dated, c1790s), 2 receipts (dated 2 May 1785, the other not dated), a marriage certificate for Lewis Roberts and Harriet Brooke, of Chester County, Pennsylvania, dated 24 May 1821 (Enoch Penrose married into the Roberts family), and 2 small sheets of paper with manuscript notes. Enoch Penrose (1767-1842) Enoch Penrose was born 1 August 1767. He was the son of John Penrose (1739-1813) and Ann Roberts (1743-1841) of Richland Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Enoch was married on 26 November 1801 to Martha Edwards (1776-1804). She was born on 6 July 1776, the daughter of William Edwards and Meribah Gaskill, originally of Burlington, New Jersey. Together Enoch and Martha had at least one daughter, Meribah Penrose, born on 17 November 1802 and died on 5 December 1841, in Richland. Martha Edwards died about a year and half after the birth of her daughter on 8 May 1804 After the death of his first wife, Enoch was married a second time to Esther Tomlinson (1777-1842) in 1812. Enoch and Esther were the parents of at least four children: Martha Penrose (1813-1848); Matilda Penrose (1815-1877) married Stephen Foulke (1819-1906); Anna Roberts Penrose (1816-1852) married Samuel Shaw (1828-1859); and John Tomlinson Penrose (1820-1861) married Margaret Jamison (1818-1900). All of Enoch's children with both wives were born in Richland Township. According to "Early Friends Families of Upper Bucks" (Philadelphia: 1925) by Clarence Vernon Roberts, Enoch Penrose was a Quaker. His second marriage took place at Exeter Monthly Meeting. When he died in 1842, he had an estate of 53 acres of land in Richland Township, which was adjudged by the Orphans' Court to his only son John T. Penrose. The family evidently resided for some years in Berks County, taking a certificate from Richland Monthly Meeting (Bucks County) to Exeter Meeting (Berks County) on 4 mo. 4, 1823, and bringing a return certificate to Richland on 4 mo. 30, 1830. Enoch Penrose died at Richland Township on 8 mo. 22, 1842. His Penrose family is an old Quaker family in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, arriving about 1717 from Yorkshire, England.


Manuscript Letter Copy Book of Cigar Manufacturer, Samuel E. Stauffer, of Adamstown, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1885-1886

By Stauffer, Samuel E.

quarto, 496 pp., + 3 pp partial index at front, miscellaneous notes on endpapers, bound in original half leather over dark cloth boards, some pages torn, creased, and chipped, particularly at front, some damp staining to the top edge of some of the leaves, binding worn at the corners and spine, with spots of surface loss, and bottom of the spine chipped. Stauffer when writing the dates of his letters gives the month and day, but only the last digit of the year, a "5" or "6", making it difficult to determine the years of the ledger. However, on numbered page 448, two copies of short notes show the date for the year 1886, thus the letters in his book are dated from 27 June 1885 to 26 February 1886. The letter-copy book has in many cases multiple letters on a single page, and sometimes even 3 or 4 short letters recorded on a single page, giving approximately 750 plus letters in all in the volume, over the course of only eight months of business, showing that Stauffer's was a very busy cigar business. Customers appear to be from New England (MA), the Mid-Atlantic (PA, MD, NY), the South (NC, VA), Midwest (IN, IL, OH) and as far west as Denver, Colorado, Lincoln, NE, and elsewhere. Samuel E. Stauffer (1848-1905) Samuel E. Stauffer was born on 2 December 1848, the son of Jacob Nissley (1801-1861) and his wife Catherine (1803-). Samuel appears to be one of at least eleven children born to his parents. In 1850 and 1860, the family is found living in West Donegal, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, where Samuel's father was listed as a farmer. Like his father, Samuel E. Stauffer was a farmer, who also worked in a cigar shop (1880) and as a truck farmer (1900), however a Lancaster newspaper article of 1881, states he was a cigar manufacturer. Internet searches find him as a writer on agricultural topics (fruit trees) in a state government publication (Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Part 2, for 1900) an in another earlier trade journal (The Pet-stock, Pigeon, and Poultry Bulletin, Volume 10 for 1880) he is shown in the business of selling pigeons, eggs, and chickens. The letter copy book offered here is dated from 1885-1886, when Stauffer was still in the cigar business. It records his various customers, types or brand of cigars sold, quantity ordered, and costs. Stauffer married Mary A. Regar (1852-1918) about 1875 or 1875. She was the daughter of butcher Henry Regar and his wife Catherine, of Adamstown, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Together the couple had at least six children: Elizabeth (1875-), Kate (1877-), Daisy (1879-), John (1884-), and Cleveland (1891). Samuel E. Stauffer died in Reading, Pennsylvania on 10 June 1905 and was buried int Cedar Grove Cemetery, in Adamstown. When Mary died in 1918, she was buried with her husband. Stauffer's obituary published on 13 June 1905 in the News-Journal of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, stated that he was engaged in the cigar making business for fifteen years, and also conducted a poultry farm. He spent the great part of 1904 in Mexico, where he managed a tobacco and rubber plantation, and at the end of his life, died in Reading, Pennsylvania, where he had been working as a cigar salesman. He also was listed as a school-teacher in Lancaster County and a Justice of the Peace for twelve years. According to Franklin Ellis and Samuel Evans' "History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania" (Philadelphia: 1883), there were more than one hundred firms engaged in buying and packing tobacco in Lancaster County, with over a hundred specially built tobacco warehouses to hold the crop and make cigars. The various firms not only bought and packed the crop of Lancaster, but also three-fourths of Pennsylvania's crop, as well as some from Connecticut, New York and Wisconsin. Lancaster tobacco men grew more than half of Pennsylvania's tobacco. The industry started in the 1830s and in 1879 had the largest crop known to any county at 18 million pounds. These tobacco firms provided considerable employment in Lancaster County, keeping workers busy in the warehouses and cigar factories even in the winters, where they produced millions of cigars. This Letter Copy Book gives a look at the business one of these cigar companies that manufactured, sold, and shipped cigars throughout the United States. Sample Quotes: "July 13th [188]5 Messrs. Lewis [Breme]& Sons Philada., Pa. Gentlemen, I have yet 3c 30 m Carmen on hand which I worked on hand thinking that you might order at some time, but when last to see you, you thought you could not handle any more. Should you want them will send them for $16.25 which is cost and terms to be such, namely pay when you have sold them. They are three nice cases. If you can use them, please help me out. I will not [make] any more unless ordered. Very resp., Samuel E. Stauffer" "Reinhold's [Station] July 18th [188]5 Eight (8) cases cigars Mkd. No. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11. W. Bros. & Co. Phil. & Boston Steamship Line Weight NO. 1 -160, 2-168, 4-302, 5-280, 7-145, 8-155, 10-293, 11-164, total 1667 pounds. Wheeler Bros & Co. Boston, Mass. Samuel E. Stauffer" "July 18th [188]5 Messrs. Wheeler Bros & Co. Boston, Mass. Gentlemen, I have shipd you several of my brands today by Rail from Reinhold's Station R & C. R.R. via Phil & Boston Steamship line from Philada I have yet some of my cheaper brands which I will get ready some time following week, also few brands beautiful put up at low prices. Mr. Knowlton always paid freight & hope that this is understood between you and I, that at these prices I do not expect to pay any freight, nor charges. Since Mr. K. has sold for me, prices are considerable lower on account of large reductions in wages. Case No. 1 are Sumatra goods, No. 8 hand work long filler, Havana seed W. binders. Any of these goods can be changed in brands by paying the difference should they cost more. Of my brands outside Case No. 8 can furnish 15 to 20 m per day. Always let me know in time in case of larger orders, as first come, first served. Do you advance any money on shipment, if so, am always able to use funds? Hope to hear from you favorable and awaiting your future kind large orders. [Very] Resp., Samuel E. Stauffer" "July 20th [188]5 Messrs. Brown & Patrick Lincoln, Neb. Gentlemen, Your kind favor rec'd, would say have shipd the last case July 16., Star Union line via Harrisburg, PA, via Chicago C.B.R.R. Please watch the time and see if this won't carry quicker to your place. Will have another ½ case finished this week so in case you order will be ready to ship it same day. Am very resp., Samuel E. Stauffer Gent. Before closing this I rec'd your favor 17th inst., dft enclosed $77.60 in full for bill June 16th, thanks. Very resp., Samuel E. Stauffer" "July 20th [188]5 Mess. B. P. [Braushe] & Co. Denver, Colo. Gentlemen, Your kind favor 14th rec'd, saying the ½ case cigars received were irregular, and rough, and could not use them. Please take my word and honor, that you have rec'd a cigar at price that profits are not worth mentioning and one made of [Comb.] filler, Havana seed wrapper & binder. Our Mr. Steencock mentioned to me to give you something good which I thought I did. Sorry I could not satisfy you. Should you be able which I think you will be, please use it at your own reasonable reduction. Would not like to have it returned. Let me hear from you in regard to it. Am yours very Resp., Samuel E. Stauffer" "July 24th [188]5 Mr. Herman Glass Evansville, Indiana My Dear Sir, With the 2 sample each of Plantation, Royal Tiger, & Pet, I have sent you c/20 each, White Swan & Purity, Price of Purity $16.00, same long filler $20.00, and Price of White Swam $21.00. This is a hand made long filler. Please examine. Awaiting your future kind orders. I am very resp., Samuel E. Stauffer" "July 25th [188]5 Mess. Fred. Dought & Co. Muscatine, Iowa Gentlemen, I again have taken the liberty of sending you 50 each cigars of following brands: Namely Try Me 13.50 - 3 off cash " Wht. Swan 18.50 - " " Purity 15.50 - " " Royal Tiger 15.00 - " " Charrots 16.00 - " White Swam & Charoots are long filler hand worked. These brands you can change to any label you may see fit. Besides will give you control of the same. I have no agent to travel through your country. Reference as to trustworthy, and truthfulness will again refer you to our friend Mr. Peter Mussa Jr. of your city. Awaiting a reply… I am yours very Resp., Samuel E. Stauffer"


Autograph Letter Signed, New Hartford, New York, December 21, 1830, to Hon. Charles E. Dudley, Washington

By Savage, Eli

Quarto, two pages, old folds, postal markings on stamp-less address leaf, "free franked", in very good, clean and legible condition. Savage, recently returned from Green Bay, writes to Dudley seeking the post of Indian Agent there and comments upon the Oneida, York and Buffalo Indians, and the removal of the latter. "My Dear Sir, … I hasten to answer your enquiry as to Mr. Colton he is a gentleman that I saw but once at Green Bay and that was two days before I left there. When in New York about a month before I saw you he (Colton) made himself known to me and told me the great attachment he had for the Indians and that he intended to go to Washington this winter and vindicate their cause, and publish a series of numbers on the ill treatment of the Indians, I encouraged him in the measure, for I supposed that discouragement was equal to encouragement believing that he was one of those who was sent out to spy out the difficulty between the Government and the Indians, for the purpose of raising the Indian Question in this State for political purposes this is all that I know of Mr. Colton.. Since I saw you I have understood that the Oneida Indians were not satisfied with the Report of the Commissioners and that some of them will be at Washington this winter, the information that I conveyed to you was from Gen Root and not from the Indians since then I have learned they are anxious for more land, as I told you it is all the White Man and not the Red Man. According to your wishes if I go to New York this winter I shall call upon Mr. J. D. Ogden. I may be at Washington in the course of the Session after the office of Indian Agent at Green Bay if Col. Stambaugh appointment is not confirmed as it is said that it will not be owing to his neglect of duty while at the Bay how true this may be I do not know. It is an office that I should like very well if consistent with the Power to give it to me and it would be of great importance to this state upon the account of the Removal of the York Indians for they feel a great interest in having an agent from this state. I am sure that it would assist much in the Removal of the Buffalo Indians. It is an office that I have thought of much and it was suggested to me when at the Bay I should wish to hear from you …"


Autograph Letter Signed, Brookeville Maryland, 5th Month 22, 1815, to Cadwalader Evans, Jr., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

By Moore, Thomas

Inventor of the Refrigerator Proposes a Plan for Navigating the Schuylkill River Canal 1815. folio, 4 pages, possibly a retained draft, with extensive corrections, paper slightly browned, small portion of paper missing at lower edge, affecting some text on last two lines of pages 1-3, else in good, clean and legible condition. Thomas Moore (1760-1822) was a Quaker farmer, cabinetmaker and skilled engineer – who, in 1802, invented an ice box to transport butter from Georgetown (District of Columbia) to his home in Montgomery County, Maryland. His device was a tin box placed inside an oval cedar tub, the gaps between box and tub filled with ice, the whole then covered with a hinged lid and insulated on the outside with rabbit fur and coarse woolen cloth. He displayed the box to President Jefferson, a lover of novel inventions, who not only granted Moore a patent for his "Refrigerator" but bought one himself that was long used at Monticello. Moore recorded his accomplishment, and the new name he had given his invention, in a pamphlet published the following year, entitled: An Essay on the Most Eligible Construction of Ice-houses: Also, a description of the Newly Invented Machine Called the Refrigerator. (A rarity; the last copy at auction sold in the Streeter Sale, 1969, for $ 175). Moore later established cotton mills in Maryland, oversaw construction projects on rivers and canals near Washington, D.C., and was appointed by Jefferson one of three commissioners to begin work on the first major highway in the United States to be built by the federal government, stretching from the Potomac to the Ohio River. At the time of his death, he was chief Engineer for the Virginia Board of Public Works. Moore's national reputation was such that Evans, President of the Schuylkill Navigation Company, consulted him about the best means of improving navigation along the most important Pennsylvania river canal. Moore responded with this long, somewhat rambling letter, which reads in part: "Respected Friend, …I think the plan you purpose to accept for the improvement of the navigation of the Schuykill is on the whole a judicious one. The erection of dams across the River to be passed by a Lock at one end is a plain business in which I presume you will find no difficulty, but the selection of proper Sites and… the proper direction and length to using dams and… Jetties… will require the exercise of sound Judgment…I believe it will be found in practice that the plan of placing them alternately on the two sides of the River must be abandoned. When a dam is extended quite across a River the powers of art fairly overcome the resistance of the Stream by the strength of materials and the address by which they are combined, but in those practical kinds of operations, we must go hand in hand with nature or be content to have our views continually thwarted… if for the sake of producing regularity in our works we should project a Jettie from the lower end of a concave shore (where the laws that govern fluids in motion always produce a concentration of current) in order to effect a passage for boats on the convex side, nature would laugh at our puny efforts by filling our canal…with sand… When the dams or Jetties are revised on Grand bottoms, the artificially excited current is always liable to scoop out the bed of the Sluice and deposit the contents somewhere at a short distance below which may cause an impediment where none existed before…The shape of the River and the materials of which the bottom is composed will of course be…considerations in determining the sites and shape of the works….I am not in possession of sufficient data to determine accurately the relative differences between propelling a boat by Setting Poles and…a toeing line but know it is very great… in favor of toeing. I have long been of opinion though I have never seen it tried that in many cases… instead of a toeing path, let a Chain be made fast in the bottom, a boats length above the rapid, and also at the lower end but of greater length than this distance between those points so as to lie slack on the bottom to be hooked up by boat hooks. I know of no way in which muscular power can be better applied…This plan would generally be less expensive than a toeing path. I have no doubt from what I have seen… that six men with such a contrivance in a good boat would draw up as many Tons through a Sluice of one foot full in a hundred without the least difficulty and probably with but five minutes delay. It would be very difficult and indeed impossible to describe on paper the best mode of overcoming every obstacle that will occur in the prosecution of such a work but a perfect knowledge of the principles… which govern the direction and deposition of ponderous bodies torn from their beds and put in motion by a current , proved by observation on what actually takes place in every stream, will go far towards giving… the best direction that the case admit of, but in many instances must be judged of on the spot. A plan recommended by me some years ago for the construction of…dams has …lately been introduced on the Connecticut River which is…perhaps of all others the cheapest and probably none can… answer the purpose better.... information contained in this Letter will probably fall short of thy expectations but is all that occurs at present relative to a general outline which is all that can be given at a distance. If the hints communicated are of any value, they are at the service of the Schuykill Navigation Company." [sic]


Autograph Letter Signed, Parkville, Missouri, March 1, 1849 to Rev. C. D. Herbert, Ellsworth, Maine

By Park, George S.

quarto, three pages plus stamp-less "free franked" address leaf, in very good, clean and legible condition. George Shepherd Park had an amazing life, first as a hero of the Texas War of Independence and then as a Missouri and Kansas pioneer who founded two cities and two colleges. Born in Vermont, lived for a time in Maine, then taught school in Ohio and Illinois, at 24 he went to Texas to fight Santa Anna's troops, said, according to apocryphal legend, to be the sole survivor of the Goliad Massacre. He then moved to Missouri to teach school and to build a home at a steamboat landing site. In this new city of Parkville, which bore his name, he started a Presbyterian Church and a pro-Abolitionist newspaper which was raided by a pro-slavery mob, its printing press thrown in the river. He also established another town on the Kansas River where he funded an anti-slavery society and a college that would later become Kansas State University. Back in Missouri, later in life, he founded yet another college – also named for him and still in existence – intended to prepare students for Presbyterian mission service. This letter, written in his early Missouri pioneer days to a friend in the Maine village where he had resided show's Park's religiosity – and that of his wife, who may have been a Quaker. At the start of the Gold Rush, Park declares his conviction that the country was headed down a dangerous path of immorality and disunion. "Dear Friend, … do the old Hills look natural? Do you love those cold bleak hills, those clear, gushing streams, those green pastures, lovely cottages and tall church spires better than our mighty Western rivers, our vast prairies and fertile plains? But you will say home sweet home. Ah yes, what a circle of endearments! There can be no dearer spot than the one that gave us birth. … I will give you a slight sketch of times and things in this far off land. We have made a great many improvements the last year and several brick buildings will go up this year. But a great many has caught the Gold fever and two companies of 24 each will start for California on the first of May … The excitement is great. The companies meet every week and discuss matters, an animated discussion took place the other day on the size of the Kegs each one should have made to bring home their gold in. Whether they should hold 50,000 or 100,000 Dollars worth, the 100,000 carried. I have not caught the fever and Eliza [his wife] says she does not want so much gold. It was quite healthy here last summer but we expect the Cholera soon on the boats. It has been a dry cold winter. The rive has been froze and the snow has laid on the ground all winter. The river has risen now 5 ft but the ice still holds. Some talk of a dissolution of the Union but I hope there is moderate men enough North and South to save the Union … The Methodist have preaching twice a month. The old Methodist church have established a circuit and preach once in two months some places. They suffer much persecution & are driven off. The people call them abolitionists… We have got a brick schoolhouse built 20 by 30 on top of the hill in front of the graveyard and last though not least a division of the sons of temperance with 40 members and prospering. We are getting up a library for the Sons. We have foes on every hand but our division stand up manfully. We are going to petition the county court to grant no more [liquor] licences so you see the war has fairly begun. And the Gamblers collect in the grocery to organize and the sons in the division room. But sir I tremble at the prospect of our country. Every thing seems unsettled – people moving to and fro, Gambling, drinking, Idleness, Ignorance, the evils of Slavery, negroes prowling about to pillage & burn, no Sunday schools, a want of moral & religious. If the sons of temperance fail I shall be discouraged, and try and sell out and go over and live among the peaceful Quakers over in Illinois. Eliza says she would like to have our little Quaker brought up over there. But before we give up the foes of temperance will have a hard struggle. I hope you will sympathize with us and pray for us. If you can send us once in a while a paper to cheer us on we shall be thankful… may God richly reward you in all your Pious labors and when you have finished your labors in this world receive you to the other mansions of Eternal rest …'


Autograph Letter Signed, Machias, January 1st, 1798 to his father, Benjamin Upton, Reading, Massachusetts, “honored by T. Lincoln.”

By Upton, Daniel P.

Settling the Canadian-American boundary dispute in the "wilds" of Maine - 1798. Folio, 3 pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, formerly folded, minor browning, and soiling to address leaf, else very good, legible condition. Upton writes his father: "Honored Sir, … I wish you & all a happy new year – I shall have as happy a one I presume s I ever saw (if sickness does not prevent) for business is very brisk here, comparing it with what we hear from the westward – I have, as I informed you, the Academy – with which the Trustees appear perfectly satisfied, as well as the People. I have besides considerable writing to do for others which turns to some advantage. But surveying Land bids fair to be of great advantage to me as there is a great deal to survey in a new country like this – and only one person here that understands it, besides myself & he is superannuated. I did not perfectly understand it when I first came here, but have paid such attention to it that I am perfectly acquainted with it & can measure the most difficult piece of Land with accuracy & dispatch. I have four dollars a day for surveying. I have surveyed but two days as yet, the People not knowing that I could accomplish the business. The two days I surveyed I laid out a very difficult piece of wild Land of one hundred acres the Plan happened to be very accurate, which has been of great advantage to me – for the man for whom the survey was made is friendly & told the people that I did it with the greatest expedition & with accuracy (which I have the vanity to say is the case) By which means they have employed me to do considerable in the Spring for them. But I have been unfortunate in losing a piece of Business which would have been of the greatest advantage to me – it was this – The Boundary line between the United States and his Britannic Majesty is not settled, four surveyors were appointed to survey the Rivers Soodiac [Schoodic] and Magaguadavie [Magaguadavic], which employed them all six months – they have five Dollars per day each… which amounted to between 11 & 12 hundred Dollars per Mo – they began their survey about 8 weeks before I arrived here (one of them was very unwilling to go, being unwell) – had I been here I should have been one of them, as Mr. Bruce & Judge Jones now tell me, they had power to appoint them & had to send to the westward for three of them. However there are several new Towns to lay out here, & I have the promise of doing that whenever it is done – which will be of considerable advantage to me. (if it happens while I tarry here) Perhaps you have heard of the dispute respecting the River Magaguadavie's being the St. Croix, which (St. Croix) was to be the Boundary line between us, & the British. We wish to have the Magaguadavie the St. Croix, the British wish to have the River Schoodiac the St. Croix, for they will then take in several thousand acres of land more than if ye Magdie was the t St. Croix. I am perfectly acquainted with the business, having seen & copied all the Depositions of both sides – I suppose you, Sir, have an inclination to know how i[t] will turn, (which makes me write this) but 't[is im-] possible for me to tell. I think however that the line will finally run between the Rivers. I wish, Sir, you would let no one see this, for I don't like to tell my situation when unfortunate, nor boast of it when prosperous but you may depend upon it I am doing well …" Daniel Upton was23 when he wrote this letter from the "wilds" of the future state of Maine to his family in Massachusetts. He had gone north after graduating from Harvard to become instructor at Washington Academy, a newly established private school in Machias, for which he was paid $ 100 a year. Meanwhile, he was studying law under the tutelage of Phineas Bruce, the only attorney in the County, at the same time courting Bruce's daughter Hannah, whom he married after he was admitted to the Bar. They would have two sons, but, tragically, after their birth, would have only a short time together. In 1805, Upton contracted pulmonary disease, returning to his father's house to recuperate. But died there before his 32nd birthday. The peace treaty of 1783 that ended the American Revolutionary War with England included a hurried stipulation that defined the easternmost boundary between Massachusetts (which the included Maine) and New Brunswick in British Canada as the "St. Croix River". At the time, there were few settlers in that frontier region, so it seemed to matter little that there were conflicting claims about which Indian-titled river was the "true" St. Croix. A decade later, another Anglo-American treaty dodged the issue, leaving the St. Croix boundary dispute up to a bi-national commission which began deliberations just about the time Daniel Upton came to Machias as school teacher and surveyor. His account of what one historian has called "the diplomatic search for the St. Croix River" is significant because the peaceful settling of that dispute, at the end of that year, "marked the beginning and laid the foundation of the progressive amicable determination of the boundaries between the United States and the British dominions in America", the Commission's verdict being "accepted peacefully, with finality, by both nations." The larger Canadian border dispute would linger for a half century, bringing the two countries to the brink of war in the 1840s, but that too would be eventually settled amicably, perhaps encouraged by this much earlier example of peaceful diplomacy. Not surprisingly, given his short life, letters by Upton are rare. There are none among the Upton family papers at Yale (which has an archive of his grandson, a ship's captain) or at the Peabody Essex Museum.


Archive of Incoming Correspondence of Alfred Church Lane, Geologist Harvard graduate, professor at Michigan College of Mines and Tufts College, including letters from U.S. Congressmen and Senators, College Presidents and Professors, Business Leaders, Publishers, and Editors, 1877-1947

By Lane, Alfred Church

297 letters, 371 typed and handwritten pages, dated 1 May 1877 to 5 December 1947, also includes 16 paper and manuscript ephemeral items including 7 newspaper clippings, 1 manuscript poem, a 64-page tourist pamphlet for "Cohoes, New York," 1 circular, 5 cards with manuscript notes and writing etc., 35 letters were written between 1877 - 1899, the rest date from 1900-1947. The correspondence in this collection consists mainly of incoming letters written to geologist Alfred Church Lane, a Harvard graduate, and professor at Michigan College of Mines and at Tufts College (the present Tufts University). The collection includes letters written by U.S. Congressmen and U.S. Senators, both in office and out, as well as college presidents, professors, business leaders, publishers, editors, friends, etc. While Lane was a geologist and professor, he took an active interest in politics, and many letters deal with the political issues of the day, including required military conscription, World War One, the League of Nations, local Michigan and Massachusetts elections, etc. Alfred Church Lane (1863-1948) Alfred C. Lane was born in Boston, Massachusetts on 29 January 1863. He was a great-great-grandson of a Concord minuteman and grandson of an abolitionist. He belonged to the eleventh generation of his family in New England. His father, Jonathan Abbot Lane, served some years as president of the Boston Merchants' Association and the Massachusetts State Senate. His mother was Sarah Delia Clarke, a graduate of Mt. Holyoke College. The Lanes were members of the Congregationalist church and the Republican party. Lane was educated at the Boston Latin School and Harvard University, where he received his A.B. degree in 1883. Between 1883 and 1885 he taught mathematics at Harvard, then studied petrography under Prof. Harry Rosenbusch at the University of Heidelberg until 1887, before returning to Harvard to earn his Ph.D. in 1888. The following year he joined the Michigan State Geologic Survey as a petrographer, and he remained in that post into 1892, while also serving as an instructor at the Michigan College of Mines. He became assistant state geologist for Michigan in 1892, and from 1899 to 1909 he was the state geologist. Finally, he joined Tufts College in 1892, becoming the Pearson professor of geology and mineralogy. He retired from the college in 1936 as professor emeritus. While at Tufts, Lane served as vice president of the AAAS Division of Geology in 1907. He received an honorary D.Sc. from Tufts in 1913. During World War One, Lane went to France to do educational work for the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA), and he stayed on through 1919 as head of the department of mining in the college organized by the American Expeditionary Force at the Université de Beaune. From 1922 - 1946, Lane was chairman for the Committee on the Measurement of Geologic Time for the National Research Council. He served as a member of the Board of Visitors at Harvard Observatory in 1924. Lane was appointed as consultant of science to the Library of Congress in 1929; the first person to hold that post. In 1931, he was president of the Geological Society of America. He was awarded the Ballou Medal by Tufts College in 1940 for "distinguished service to education and the nation". During his career, he authored 1,087 publications. He published in the areas of science, religion, local and national politics, economics, word affairs, and other subjects, with many of his popular papers appearing in newspapers or periodicals, as well as scientific journals. Lane married Susan Foster Lauriat on 15 April 1896. Together they had three children: Lauriat Lane, Frederic Chapin Lane, and Harriet Page Lane, who married C.D. Rouillard. Alfred Church Lane died suddenly on 15 April 1948, of a heart attack, at the home office of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, in New York City, where he had gone to greet friends who were returning with the Finn Ronne South Polar Expedition. He was 85. List of Correspondents: George R. Agassiz (1862-1951) professor of zoology at Harvard University,son of American scientist and engineer Alexander Agassiz, and grandson of Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) noted biologist and geologist. He wrote 4 letters to A.C. Lane. Rodolphe Louis Agassiz (1871-1933) was a ten-goal polo champion who participated in the 1902 International Polo Cup. He later became chairman of the board of the Calumet and Hecla Mining Company. He was the son of Alexander Agassiz, grandson of Louis Agassiz. Abram Piatt Andrew Jr. (1873-1936) was an economist, an Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, the founder and director of the American Ambulance Field Service during World War I, and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts. James Burrill Angell (1829-1916) was an American educator, academic administrator, and diplomat. He is best known for being the longest-serving president of the University of Michigan, from 1871 to 1909. He wrote 2 letters to A.C. Lane. Roger Ward Babson (1875-1967) was an American entrepreneur, economist and business theorist in the first half of the 20th century. He is best remembered for founding Babson College. Julius Caesar Burrows (1837-1915) was a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan. Hermon Carey Bumpus (1862-1943) was a biologist, museum director, and the fifth president of Tufts College (later Tufts University). Leonard Carmichael (1898-1973) was an American educator and psychologist. In addition, he became the seventh secretary of the Smithsonian Institution in 1953. He was appointed president of Tufts University in 1938, serving until his departure for the Smithsonian in 1953. Louis Arthur Coolidge (1861-) Newspaper correspondent; private secretary to U.S. Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, 1888-91; delegate to Massachusetts state constitutional convention, 1917; delegate to Republican National Convention from Massachusetts, 1920. Karl Taylor Compton (1887- 1954) was a prominent American physicist and president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) from 1930 to 1948. Ada Louise Comstock (1876-1973) was an American women's education pioneer. She served as the first dean of women at the University of Minnesota and later as the first full-time president of Radcliffe College. George Bruce Cortelyou (1862-1940) was an American Cabinet secretary of the early twentieth century. He held various positions in the presidential administrations of Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, and Theodore Roosevelt. John Albert Cousens (1874-1937) was an American Universalist businessman and educator who was the sixth president of Tufts College (later Tufts University) from 1919 to 1937. He wrote 4 letters to A.C. Lane. Frederick William Dallinger (1871-1955) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and a Judge of the United States Customs Court. He wrote 2 letters to A.C. Lane. Edwin Denby (1870-1929) was an American lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of the Navy in the administrations of Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge from 1921 to 1924. He also played a notable role in the infamous Teapot Dome scandal which took place during the Harding presidency. Grover C. Dillman (1889-1979) He became President of Michigan Technological University in 1935 and in the next 21 years guided the development of its top-ranking engineering school, training ground for many hundreds of highway engineers. William Yandell Elliott (1896–1979) was an American historian, hired by Harvard President Abbott Lawrence Lowell, and he was to remain at Harvard for the next 41 years, during which time he became an advisor to a American presidents and presidential candidates, including Al Smith in 1928. He was a member of Roosevelt's Brain Trust in the 1930s and '40s, and Vice President of the War Production Board in Charge of Civilian Requirements during World War II. He also accompanied Roosevelt to Yalta. and political advisor to six U.S. presidents. Elizabeth Gardiner Evans (1856-1937) privately educated; married Glendower Evans. Served as trustee, Massachusetts State Reform Schools (1886–1914); was a member of the Massachusetts Consumers' League and the Women's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston (1890s); was a member and officer, Boston Women's Trade Union League (1904–12); was a member of the Massachusetts Minimum Wage Commission (1911–12); was active in the campaign for women's suffrage (1912–14); sent as a delegate to the International Congress of Women at the Hague (1915); was a national director, American Civil Liberties Union (1920–37); was on the Sacco-Vanzetti defense committee (1920–27); awarded the first annual Ford Hall Forum medal (1933). Publications: several articles in LaFollette's Weekly, The Progressive, and other periodicals. Joseph Warren Fordney (1853-1932) was a politician from Michigan, serving as a U.S. Congressman from the 8th District from 1899 to 1923. Frederick Huntington Gillett (1851-1935) was an American politician who served in the Massachusetts state government and both houses of the U.S. Congress between 1879 -1931, including six years as Speaker of the House. Carter Glass (1858-1946) was an American newspaper publisher and Democratic politician from Lynchburg, Virginia. He represented Virginia in both houses of Congress and served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Woodrow Wilson. He played a major role in the establishment of the U.S. financial regulatory system, helping to establish the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. use. Jeanette E. Granstein Women's College, University of Delaware, Newark. Arthur Norman Holcombe (1884-1977) was an American historian, and educator. He was credited with establishing political philosophy and theory as basic disciplines in Harvard University's government curriculum, where he was Professor of Government, from 1910 to 1955. Among his students were John F. Kennedy, Henry Kissinger and Henry Cabot Lodge. In 1949, he assisted Chiang Kai-shek in drafting a constitution for the Republic of China. Lucius Lee Hubbard (1849-1933) From 1891 to 1893, Hubbard served as assistant to M. E. Wadsworth with the State Geological Survey of Michigan based in Houghton, and then from 1893 to 1899 as Michigan state geologist. Hubbard was instrumental in the development the state mining industry, most notably in the area of Houghton. After leaving the geological survey, he then became general manager of the Copper Range Mining Co. and the Champion Copper Co., and afterwards was president of the Ojibway Mining Co. From 1905 to 1917 he was a member of the board of control of the Michigan College of Mines. He served as Regent of the University of Michigan from 1911 until his death. Julius Kahn (1861-1924) was a United States Congressman who was succeeded by his wife Florence Prag Kahn after his death. He has been described by the American Jerusalem as "among the most influential Jews in San Francisco—as well as national–civic life, from the middle of the 19th century into the 1930s". Patrick Henry Kelley (1867-1925) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan. He served as U.S. Representative from Michigan's 6th congressional district from 1915-1923. Prof. Alfred Church Lane (1863-1948) collection includes 6 retained 'copies' of letters by Lane, written to Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge, U.S. Senator. There is also 1 copy of a letter to Hon. Spencer Penrose. Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924) was an American Republican Senator and historian from Massachusetts. A member of the prominent Lodge family. Collection includes a typed letter by Lodge, not signed, to Gov'r Arthur M. Hyde of Missouri. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. (1902-1985), sometimes referred to as Henry Cabot Lodge II,[1] was a Republican United States Senator from Massachusetts and a United States ambassador. He was the Republican nominee for Vice President in the 1960 presidential election alongside incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon. Robert Luce (1862-1946) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. He was elected a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1899 and 1901–1908. He was elected Lieutenant Governor in 1912. He was Regent of the Smithsonian Institution, and was an author, on the subject of political science. Luce was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-sixth and the seven succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1919 – January 3, 1935). He wrote 4 letters to A.C. Lane. Donald Baxter MacMillan (1874-1970) was an American explorer, sailor, researcher and lecturer who made over 30 expeditions to the Arctic during his 46-year career. He pioneered the use of radios, airplanes, and electricity in the Arctic, brought back films and thousands of photographs of Arctic scenes, and put together a dictionary of the Inuktitut language. Daniel Lash Marsh (1880-1968) was president of Boston University from 1926 to 1951. Joseph William Martin Jr. (1884-1968) was an American politician who served as the 44th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1947 to 1949 and 1953 to 1955; he represented the district covering North Attleborough, Massachusetts. He was the only Republican to serve as Speaker in a sixty-four-year period from 1931 to 1995. Edward B. Mathews (1869-1944) instructor of Mineralogy and Petrography at Johns Hopkins University and served the institution for almost fifty years. In 1895 he was promoted to the rank of associate, to associate professor in 1899, and he became professor in 1904. He succeeded W. B. Clark as chairman of the department in 1917. He retired in 1939 at the age of 70 with the title professor emeritus. Fred Walter McNair (1862-1924) Asst. Prof. Math, Michigan Agricultural College, 1891-1893; Prof. Math and Physics, Michigan College of Mines, 1893-1924; and President, Michigan College of Mines, 1899-1924. During World War I worked with U.S. Bureau of Standards and later worked on firing methods for large Naval guns. Ogden Livingston Mills (1884-1937) was an American lawyer, businessman and politician. He served as United States Secretary of the Treasury in President Herbert Hoover's cabinet, during which time Mills pushed for tax increases, spending cuts and other austerity measures that would deepen the economic crisis. George Foot Moore (1851-1931) was an eminent Asian scholar, historian of religion, author, Presbyterian minister, 33rd Degree Mason of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, and accomplished teacher. Arthur Ernest Morgan (1878-1975) was a civil engineer, U.S. administrator, and educator. He was the design engineer for the Miami Conservancy District flood control system and oversaw construction. He served as the president of Antioch College between 1920 and 1936. He was also the first chairman of Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) from 1933 until 1938 in which he used the concepts proven in his earlier work with the Miami Conservancy District. William Allan Neilson (1869-1946) was a Scottish-American educator, writer and lexicographer, graduated in the University of Edinburgh in 1891 and became a Ph.D. in Harvard University in 1898. He was president of Smith College between 1917 and 1939. Chase Salmon Osborn (1860-1949) was an American politician, newspaper reporter and publisher, and explorer. He served as the 27th Governor of Michigan from 1911 to 1913. Richard Alexander Fullerton Penrose Jr. (1863-1931), better known throughout his career as R. A. F. Penrose Jr., was an American mining geologist and entrepreneur. He was from a prominent Philadelphia family; his brothers were U.S. senator Boies Penrose, mining engineer Spencer Penrose, and gynecologist Charles Bingham Penrose, and his grandfather was U.S. politician Charles B. Penrose. He wrote 2 letters to A.C. Lane. Edward Lillie Pierce (1829-1897) was a United States author. He wrote a noted biography of Charles Sumner. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1860. At the beginning of the Civil War he enlisted as a private and served until July 1861, when he was detailed to collect the negroes at Hampton, Va. and set them to work on the entrenchments of that town. This was the beginning of the employment of negroes on U. S. military works. In December 1861, the United States Secretary of the Treasury dispatched Pierce to Port Royal, South Carolina to examine into the condition of the negroes on the Sea Islands. In March, he was given charge of the freedmen and plantations on those islands. He took with him nearly sixty teachers and superintendents, established schools, and suggested the formation of freedmen's aid societies. Hazen Stuart Pingree (1840-1901) was a four-term Republican mayor of Detroit (1889–1897) and the 24th Governor of the U.S. State of Michigan (1897–1901). A Yankee who migrated from New England, he was a successful Republican businessman turned politician. Robert Hallowell Richards (1844-1945) was an American mining engineer, metallurgist, and educator. In 1868, with the first class to leave the institution, he graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and there he taught for 46 years, becoming professor of mineralogy and assaying and later head of the department of mining engineering and professor of metallurgy. His wife, Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards (1842-1911) was the first woman admitted to and graduated from MIT. She was an industrial and safety engineer, environmental chemist, and the first woman faculty member at MIT. C. Burnside Seagrave – editor (from 1891 to 1935) of The Cambridge Chronicle is a weekly newspaper that serves Cambridge, Massachusetts. The newspaper was founded by Andrew Reid in May 1846 and is the oldest surviving weekly newspaper in the United States. Ellen M. Stone (1846-1927) In September 1901, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, seized and held for ransom Ellen M. Stone, a Congregationalist missionary. During the six months of her captivity, the Theodore Roosevelt administration, the American public, and her superiors on the American Board Commissioners for Foreign Missions struggled with the now-familiar issues connected with acts of international terrorism. The "Miss Stone Affair," as the incident came to be called, provided America with one of its first lessons in the limitations of great power status. Ms. Stone wrote 2 letters to Mrs. A.C. Lane. Henrietta Hill Swope (1902-1980) was an American astronomer who studied variable stars. In particular, she measured the period-luminosity relation for Cepheid stars, which are bright variable stars whose periods of variability relate directly to their intrinsic luminosities. Their measured periods can therefore be related to their distances and used to measure the size of the Milky Way and distances to other galaxies. Allen Towner Treadway (1867-1947) was a Massachusetts Republican who served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, as a member, and President of, the Massachusetts Senate and a member of the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1913, until January 3, 1945. Edwin Fuller Uhl (1841-1901) was a prominent Michigan lawyer and politician. He served as Mayor of Grand Rapids, Michigan, Ambassador to Germany and United States Assistant Secretary of State. Charles Lee Underhill (1867-1946) was a United States Representative from Massachusetts. He served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives (1902-1903 and 1908-1913) and was a member of the State constitutional convention in 1917 and 1918. He was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-seventh and to the five succeeding Congresses (1921-1933). Charles Richard Van Hise (1857-1918) was an American geologist, academic and progressive. He served as president of the University of Wisconsin (UW) in Madison, Wisconsin, from 1903 to 1918. David I. Walsh (1872-1947) was a United States politician from Massachusetts. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 46th Governor of Massachusetts before serving several terms in the United States Senate. He wrote 3 letters to A.C. Lane. Benjamin Sumner Welles (1892-1961) was an American government official and diplomat in the Foreign Service. He was a major foreign policy adviser to President Franklin D. Roosevelt and served as Under Secretary of State from 1936 to 1943, during FDR's presidency. John Wingate Weeks (1860-1926) was an American politician in the Republican Party. He served as the Mayor of Newton, Massachusetts from 1902 to 1903, a United States Representative for Massachusetts from 1905 to 1913, as a United States Senator from 1913 to 1919, and as Secretary of War from 1921 to 1925.Weeks wrote 4 letters to A.C. Lane. Roger Wolcott (1847-1900) was a Republican lawyer and politician from Massachusetts. He was Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts from 1893 to 1897, becoming Acting Governor in 1896 upon the death of Governor Frederic T. Greenhalge. He was elected governor in his own right in 1897, serving until 1900. He was a leading figure in the Young Republican Club, which revitalized the Massachusetts Republican Party in the 1890s. William Jay Youmans (1838-1901) in 1872, he abandoned his medical practice to assist his brother in establishing the Popular Science Monthly, and subsequently was associated in editing. After his brother's death in 1887, he became its editor-in-chief, remaining in that position until 1900. Others – including various professors in and out of his field, business associates, attorneys and friends. Sample Quotations: "Mr. Lane, Dear Sir, At the last meeting of the Signet, March 14, a vote of thanks was passed for your kindness in lending us your boxing gloves. The queer-looking eyes and noses that were seen the next morning showed that the gloves were fully appreciated and were put to good use. Yours respectfully, H.D. Arnold Secretary pro tem March 18, 1884" "Florence, Nov. 1, 1885, 11 Via della Colomia My dear Lane, Gus Lord wrote to me a long time ago (he hasn't written since) that you were expecting to come abroad last summer, so your letter wasn't such a surprise as to give me dangerous shock, although it made me feel ugly to think I had just missed striking you at Heidelberg. I'm afraid I shall not see you in the spring, as I mean to spend January, February, and March in Spain, and then three months in Paris. However, it's pleasant to think of your being so near (comparatively speaking); and I suppose it isn't absolutely impossible that you may turn your steps Paris-ward during the April vacation -that isn't a bad season to see the city. I think you'll enjoy your stay in Heidelberg very much. I have a particular affection for the place. Fr. Philippe's house I found excellent in every respect, but I infer from your letter that you are not stopping there. E.P. Warren, '83, was in the town when I was there, and he boarded at the Müllers', across the way. I found him considerably improved. He is studying classics at Oxford. Did you know John Davis,'80, a friend of Gus Lord? He as at Fr. Philippe's with his sister and a fellow named Frye. I've just met them again here in Florence, where they stopped a week on their way down to Rome and Naples. They will be in Paris during the winter. Warren told me that Rousmaniere was at Weimar; but I didn't see him nor hear from him directly, although I spent two weeks last summer at Erfurt (visiting a German friend) and two more in Leipzig. Perhaps you know Walter Curtis,'83. His mother and sisters stopped in the same house with me here in Florence; they say he is in business in Spain. As for me, I am grinding like a fiend just at present. The end of my three years has come so near that it frightens me. I have found a good boarding house, and work all the Italian speaking people for all they are worth. I take lessons in the language, and am working up my Romance philology and French literature; at the same time I am wrestling with Olendorff's Spanish Grammar. Tell me all about your doings at Heidelberg. And if you have any more news, fresh or stale, let me have it; all my Harvard correspondents seem to have gone back on me, and my only source of information is the newspapers. I was very glad to hear something about the fellows from your last letter. Send me another before the rain (which has lasted now a month solid) makes an Atlantic of Italy, and in the meantime believe me, Yours sincerely C.H. Grandgent" "Office of Popular Science Monthly 1, 3 & 5 Bond Street New York, 28 Feb 1888 Dictated Mr. Alfred C. Lane: Dear Sir, We find your article entitled 'The geological tourist in Europe' very well suited to our pages, & shall be glad to print it, if you can accept an honorarium of twenty-five dollars, & are not anxious for publication at once. At present we are very much crowded with mater that has been accumulating for several months past, & must work some of it off before we can insert more recent contributions. Very truly yours, W.J. Youmans" "July 11, '92 My dear Mr. Lane: I thank you hastily for the contribution to the Sacco-Vanzetti defense fund. I think the prosecution has been quite unwarranted on the part of the government, as they could have cleaned the matter up at the time had they tried to find the truth, instead of just getting two 'reds.' I am hoping confidently on acquittal, but we can never tell. I enclose you an article describing the manner of […. …] are accused - And not one penny up to date, has the state provided for their defense. Very truly yours, Elizabeth Gendower Evans" "Milton 7 March 95 'Day of D. Webster's Apostacy' Dear Mr. Lane, Yours is received. I think Fred Douglass in his letter beats all the white men in his fine English. It was one of his very last things. It was a written a while after the dinner, tho dated before. Mr. Hoar stirred up A.B. Johnson at the dinner to press for it. Mr. Johnson did not know till after Douglass' death that his request had taken effect. I think the letters add greatly to the interest of the pamphlet do you not? It is pleasant to think that I am to have a perpetual place in your household. What a pity it is that there are not freedmen to care for – or that Mrs. Lane and myself might meet again! I had a rare hand the other day. The first of the kind I ever had to have my conversation quoted in a New Haven pulpit by T.T. Munger, something to the effect that one of three things was needed to make our people earnest & write off vile games – a great question like that of slavery, a civil war or a revival of religion. It was melancholy at Gen. Tufts funeral to note that of his thousands of political associates we two were all who were there to pay the last tribute. Yours truly, Edward L. Pierce" "Chase S. Osborn, Sault De Sainte Marie, Michigan, Aug. 10, 1910 My dear Dr. Lane: I was very much pleased to have your good letter from Houghton and to have been in your mind. I am glad that you enjoyed your visit in the North and am very sorry that I could not see you. Thank you very sincerely indeed for your suggestion that I give a talk to your classes at Tufts College some time. I can assure you that nothing would please me more, and I shall hope that the opportunity may occur. Thank you for what you say of my son George. I am very glad that he had the opportunity of meeting such a man as you. It pleases me, too, to have your good wishes politically. I note your suggestion in relation to getting out the votes. We expect to have the Upper Peninsula very thoroughly covered before the primary and the local organizations so perfected that every Republican in the district will cast his vote on September 6. Hoping that everything is going nicely with you and yours, and with very kindest remembrances I am, Yours sincerely, Chase S. Obsorn" "Massachusetts Institute of Technology Boston, Mass. May 12, 1911 My dear Professor Lane, I have before me your kind letter of May 2d, together with the check for $10 which you have so kindly contributed towards a Memorial for my dear wife. I want to thank you very much for your kind expressions and for your gift. I will put it immediately with other gifts that are sent in for this same purpose in order to help swell the sum to the figure which I hope will be very considerable. I am devoting my financial effort to the preparation of a life of Mrs. Richards which is now going on. Miss Hunt of Washington has come on to Boston on purpose to write the life and we are gathering all the information that we can to make it as true a picture and also as valuable to the rising generation as possible. We have a feeling that her life will be read not only with interest but with profit by the young people. With kind regards, Sincerely yours, Robert H. Richards" "Washington, D.C., 311 C St., NW, Feb 9, 1916 My dear Mrs. Lane, Only last night I received your Alfred's card, which he left for me when he called during my absence. As I was gone nearly six months, from June 15 – Dec 3, and then again from Dec. 23 – Jan 9, the wonder is that the card should have been so carefully preserved in our Superintendent's desk… Our Bill has been reintroduced in both Houses, and again I am working for it, and hoping this may [be] God's time to grant us success… …I went to West Virginia and Western Pa., holding missionary and temperance meetings, partly in connection with the W.C.T.U., and also with Presbyterian, Methodist, and other churches, besides attending summer training-school, which was very stimulating and helpful. I went to the Pacific Coast only in season for the National W.C.T.U. Convention, at Seattle, Oct 4-9, thence down the coast having glimpses of the two Expositions, the railroad fares from Los Angeles to San Diego, and return being a gift to all long-ticket tourists… Love always to you, devotedly yours, Ellen M. Stone" "United States Senate, Washington, D.C., January 30, 1917 Dear Professor Lane: Replying to your letter of January twenty-fourth, I am heartily in favor of military training for your men, not only on account of its value in connection with national affairs, but on account of the man himself. I shall therefore support any reasonable proposition for universal military training. Thank you for calling your views regarding this matter to my attention. Very truly yours, John W. Weeks" "United States Senate, Washington, D.C., April 7, 1917 Dear Professor Lane, I have your letter of the fifth and am sending you under separate cover copies of such bills as have been introduced relating to universal service, and I will send you a copy of the Army Bill which comes from the Department as soon as it is in print. I have been over it and it does not fully conform to the general proposition advanced by the President in his message Monday night. Therefore, it is supposed that this proposed legislation has his approval. I shall be glad to have you send me the original copy of the statement signed by President Lowell and others as soon as you have gotten the signatures you expect to obtain. I think it would be well, if it is possible to get him to do so, to have President Lowell of the Boston College sign it. Confidently, I am told that the President has been very much influenced in his present position regarding universal training by a letter which he has received from President Emeritus Eliot of Harvard University and that, in fact, he is very much influenced by Doctor Eliot's opinions. Yours very truly, John W. Weeks" "Michigan College of Mines, Houghton, Michigan, August 20, 1917 My dear Lane: On my desk I find your card of the 4th inst. On Friday, and again on Saturday, the 10th and 11th, I called your house several times in an effort to get in touch and learn something about Lauriat, but I could not raise anyone. I was with Dean Anthony at Tufts. Hugh is, as you say, in S.S.U. 65 His last letter was dated July 24th. For the previous twelve or thirteen days he had been having rather exciting experiences. His division was fighting on the ridge near Craonne, along which runs the Chemin des Dames, over part of which his route lay to the Poste de Secours, a piece of the road, something like half a mile, was under shell fire. The boys called it Fifth Avenue because they said it seemed fully as long, and by contrast reminded them of the crowds on that familiar thoroughfare. In twelve days, his division had lost over 3,000 men, and he thought they would probably be moved out to recuperate at the end of the week. He personally had had but one narrow escape, and while four of the other cars had been hit, not one on the section had been hurt. He seemed well, happy, and fairly contented with his job. As I understand it, his section is made up mainly of men from Central States, Washington, and Chicago Universities. I do not have Lauriat's sectional number. My impression is he expected to be assigned to section 9, but I did not pay sufficiently close attention to what I was told to be sure about it. We lost our engineers last Friday evening, and the campus looks deserted without the soldier boys. I presume they are nearing their southern encampment by this time. Very truly yours, F. W. McNair" "Arthur E. Reimer, Attorney at Law, Boston, Mass, 2-28-18 Dear Dr. Lane, I have been rudely reminded by some of my former colleagues in the Socialist Labor Party that membership in the Peoples Forum ceases automatically with membership in the party and the result has been that the request made by me on your behalf for the credential you requested has been turned down not on the question of its being granted but on the ground that the request came from an outsider and should come from the person directly. Perhaps you can see some logic in this reasoning but I confess that I cannot and I feel that a personal prejudice against me for my attitude had perhaps something to do with it, I mean my disagreement with the organization on mattes pertaining to the big problems of the present day. I have no doubt however that your request would be granted and have been requested to inform you that the present secretary is Mary Peterson 50 Marshall St Somerville Mass to whom I suggest that you write for the desired credential. I regret the delay Doctor but assure you that I have done all possible from this end. Sincerely yours, A.E. Reimer" "Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge U.S. Senate Washington, D.C. February 8, 1919 My dear Mr. Lodge: I have no doubt you will hear a great deal in many ways of a league of nations convention. Perhaps you would like to hear from a delegate something about a convention looked at as objectively as he could. The convention is very largely a respectable, what I might call Republican crowd. I was surprised to find how widely it6 was distributed through the State. I happened to sit by a man from Lowell at the meeting and the first man I was introduced to was from Westfield. His Republican feelings of the audience were indicated by the fact that Ambassador Gerard said he was asked to sign a petition for absolute free trade within the league of nations there was practically no applause, and when he said he refused and didn't believe in abondaining protection for the United States, strange as that doctrine might seem from a Democrat, there was very much applause. The temper of the convention was evidently in favor of keeping Germany out until she had shown repentance. There were a few hecklers in behalf of Ireland and Bolsheviks, but the trend of the convention was unmistakably not sympathetic with them. As I may assume from our previous correspondence, you are not against a league of nations, but are anxious that it should take a practical form. In fact, I presume you realize as well as I that a league of nations is inevitable, and the only question is whether United States should be left outside with Germany and Russia, or whether we shall continue to have our voice in the allocation of raw materials and in the establishment of a court of justice which shall construe the treaties which are to be made. I sincerely hope that you will not say anything which will lead you to be classed with Senator Reed or Senator Borah, whose indiscreet remark that he would not support a league of nations proposed by Jesus Christ was quoted, and he will hear from it no doubt. The essential points as expounded by President Taft were not inconsistent with Roosevelt's last letter and were undoubtedly approved by a vast majority of a very large assembly. I reached Tremont Temple at 10 A.M. for a meeting scheduled at 10:30 and the entrance to the door was so packed that I could progress only at a snail-like pace. I attended the convention as a delegate of the Association of university professors. Very respectfully, Alfred C. Lane" "August 16, 1919 My dear Dr. Lane: It is only at long intervals that I am at home these days, and then only for a few hours. In one of these brief visits I have just seen your letter announcing your arrival in the U.S.A. and am glad to know that you are safely home again. I have some comprehension, I think, of the satisfaction that is yours in the important service you have been able to render in France. I am glad to have you write as you do about the League of Nations. I have been speaking for it for months past. I do not know at the moment any place I could arrange for you to speak, but I hope you will at once write to President Wilson all the facts you touch on in your letter to me, and offer your services as a speaker. Thank you for suggestions in relation to Georgia oil possibilities. Thank you very much for the copy of your address on 'Socialism and Democracy.' I shall read it with interest and I know with profit. I hope you will always send me anything of yours that is printed. With high regard, always, Yours most sincerely, Chase S. Osborn" "The Globe, Daily and Sunday, Boston Nov 29, 1919 Dear Alfred, Your letter from France is very interesting. I have had made of it a translation which I am keeping and so return to you the original. Part of what he says will do very well in print, I think. I am interested to read what you say about the Coolidge boom. Certainly, you have put your finger on the real fact in your opinion that he was elected on a non-partisan issue, that he should be supported by all people whatever party. Consequently, it hardly seems a campaign platform for one party. What seems like a boom for him just now I think will not materialize into anything more serious unless the Republicans convention should be deadlocked and then someone could suddenly and cleverly spring the name of Coolidge. It might go with a rush before they could stop it. I see no hope for Massachusetts to head any Republican national ticket otherwise. I thank you for always favoring us when you have anything worth printing. Very truly yours, W.D. Sullivan" "House of Representatives Committee on Military Affairs Washington, D.C. January 22, 1920 My dear Mr. Lane, I have your letter of January 20th relative to the liberalization of our laws regarding immigrants provided they do a term of service in the Army of the United States. You will be glad to learn that an effort is being made in that direction at this time. Recently a squad of men were brought down to Washington to show the members of Congress how they were being trained not along for military service but also for citizenship. Most of these men were unable to speak the English language four months before. They were mostly aliens, but they had mastered enough English to enable them to understand every word of command and to give words of command themselves. I wish every American could have seen that platoon of soldiers. It is exceedingly gratifying to know that our fellow citizens are taking an interest in these subjects. I thank you for having written me, very sincerely yours, Julius Kahn" "Presiding Circuit Judge of Michigan Lansing, Michigan April 26th, 1920 "My dear Doctor, I was mighty glad to get your little note with the enclosures. It was a great surprise to us, who thought we knew something about conditions, that Johnson should carry this State by over forty thousand. His strength lies with the pro-Germans, the anti-leaguers, the radical labor men, and a good many of the returned soldiers. I am interested in what the vote will be in California, hoping that Hoover will beat him there. Either Louden or Hoover, or Wood would suit me first rate. I am going down to the State Convention at Kalamazoo as a delegate, because I am tremendously interested in the outcome. After that I will write you again, as I will know more of the conditions here in Michigan. I can not believe that Johnson will be nominated by the Convention, but he is a trouble maker, and if he starts a third party it would leave results that would seem absolutely certain, quite in the air. Laura graduates from College this June and goes to Wakefield, in Gogebic County, to teach. She thought she wanted some experience in the Northern Peninsula with the foreign element, and I am quite sure she will get it. I do not expect to get East this summer, but when we do we certainly will have a good visit with you and Mrs. Lane… Yours very truly, Charles B. Collingwood" "Clark University Office of the President Worcester, Massachusetts March 29, 1922 My dear Lane: Thank you for your letter. I have had a very difficult problem, but the experience for me and for the institution may prove to be in the end very profitable. I now know that the insidious way in which the doctrines of socialism are being taught in American colleges and universities, in part through these special speakers who are sent out by a well-organized central bureau, is a dangerous influence in American life. My chances of going to Belgium are very poor. I hope you can make it. Cordially yours, Wallace W. Atwood"


Correspondence of the family of Sarah “Sally” B. Keithly, of Ringo’s Mills, Kentucky and fiancé, and later husband, William J. Hisha, of Lake Village, Indiana, including letters of family, friends, and associates, 1885-1923

By (Keithly – Hisha Correspondence)

67 letters, 225 manuscript pages, dated 3 May 1885 to 6 September 1923; the bulk of the letters date from 1885 to 1892; 2 of the letters are not dated; 50 of 68 letters were written between 1889-1890. The collection offers a late 19th Century group of letters of a family that appears to have spread out over the Midwest in Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, and elsewhere, seeking opportunity, either work, school, farming, etc., they write to each other to keep touch, and correspond with friends and associates. Correspondence Correspondence includes: 6 outgoing letters of William J. Hisha, of Lake Village, Newtown County, Indiana, as well as 39 incoming letters to Hisha; his fiancé, later wife, Sara B. Keithly, of Ringo's Mills, Fleming County, KY, writes 9 letters and receives 15 letters; other members of Sara's family also write and receive letters: her father James J. Keithly, of Ringo's Mills, and her sister Dora Keithly, of Salt Lick, KY. Other friends, family, or associates write to and from each other, or to Hisha and Keithly. William J. Hisha (1866-1917) and Sarah Belle Keithly (1861-1930) William Hisha was born 9 August 1866, in Illinois, a child of German (Baden) born parents. He is found in the 1880 Census enumerated in Lake Village, Newtown County, Indiana, in the home of Andrew and Pheba Smith. Smith was a farmer, and William, then years old, was working on the farm, either his parents farmed him out, or they never immigrated, as they were not in the Smith household in 1880 and Hisha was listed as a "servant." Hisha married Sarah Belle Keithly about 1891. She was born 17 October 1861 in Kentucky, the daughter of James Jefferson Keithly (1840-1916) and his wife Trinville Smoot, both of Kentucky. Besides Sarah the couple had several other children, notably Elizabeth Dora Keithly who married Wilber Davis and Jennie B. Keithly who married William F. Miller. Both of Sarah's sisters wrote letters in this collection, as does their father James. Together William and Sarah had at three children: Leila Hisha (1891-1954), born in Indiana and never married; Claude Everett Hisha (1896-1958), born in Fleming, Kentucky and never married, he served in the US Infantry in WWI; and a third child who was born and died young, sometime between 1900 and 1910. The Hisha family appears to have lived in Indiana in 1892, and moved to Kentucky by 1896, then was found again in Indiana in the 1900 and 1910 Census, where they were enumerated at Lake Village, Newtown County, Indiana. In 1900, the Hisha family were renting and William was working as a farmer. However, by1910, William was found working as a laborer on a steam railroad and the family owned their home. Young Claude was a farm worker in 1910. William J. Hisha died on 4 June 1917 in Chicago, Illinois and was buried at Lake Village, Indiana. At the time of his death William was working as a railroad section hand in Chicago and also lived there. William's wife Sarah Keithly Hisha died thirteen years later on 31 July 1930 of breast cancer and was buried with her husband. Sample Quotes: "Fort Wayne, May 3, 1885 Dear Friend Pusher, Your letter was received and today is Sunday so I will answer for don't have much time on week days. The only time I get to practice on the fiddle is nights after I get home from the Conservatory. We have to be there at eight in the morning and get out at five at night. I go at eleven o'clock twice a week to the college and take a lesson on the fiddle an have to be back at one ready to go to practice on the piano and Bird goes at night to take her lesson after she gets through at the Conservatory… Pusher tell Ma that we have Sate out here to the Conservatory. She is Miss Work from Angola one of Birds old friends and she looks and talks and acts just like Sate and she makes me think of Sate whenever I look at her…We had to buy us an umbrella just a little while after we got here for we have to go to the Conservatory rain or shine. Oh Pusher, I saw the grandest site the other day. The Odd Fellows had a grand street parade and marched through town all dressed in their uniforms with their swords on their shoulders and they had two or three bands. I tell you they were just dressed grand and it was a as good as a show to me. They have the streets all lit up with electric lights out here at night and they give the prettiest light and it is as light as daylight nights. We have an electric light right in front of our room… Pusher you said you believed I was home sick because I keep you writing so often, but you are mistaken. I have too much to do to get home sick. I am doing my best to learn and I think that I will try and get me up a class to teach and earn some of the money back I have spent when I get back home… They have lots of roller-skating rinks out here but the Prof. says we can't go without we have a written excuse form home, but all of the girls go a walking in town when they want to and he never says anything…by from Bant" "Logansport, Ind., August 23, 1888 Friend William, Your welcome letter came last week. It found me well and very busy. We are having the house repaired and we have three carpenters here at work. Next week is Institute week and also the week of our Fair. I do not expect to go to the fair for I shall attend Institute. William, you inquired about the Normal School at Logansport. It has broken up for lack of money to run the school. I do not think there will be any school there this year. My school will begin in two weeks. We will have seven months of school. I will have about a mile and a half to walk. There is a great deal of sickness but we have been very fortunate and have not been sick. Who is going to teach the schools at the Village? I will close for this time William, for I am very tired tonight. My best wishes to yourself and Henry. Jessie Thornton" "Momence, Ill, Oct 12 /88 Mr. Hisha: I received your letter a few days ago which I am seated to answer. I am in Momence working at the dress making business. I make on an average $4.00 a week clear of expenses. I spent the fourth at Momence. I danced all night had a splendid time. I did not go to the fair this year. I had been to Kankakee to the fair so many times that I didn't care to go unless I could go to Morocco. The new road was not finished so I did not go. George is working to Mr. James Chatfields, has been there all summer. He don't go anywhere. I am proud of him he seems to be so steady and tries to save. I do not know where Will is now. He has been staying up your way some place, but isn't now I haven't seen George since in March. I saw Will about a week ago. He isn't very healthy. I am healthy. I haven 't lost a day on sickness for 7 years. We have been entertaining for a couple of weeks by a troupe of men and Kickapoo Indians representing the Indiana remedies They gave free exhibitions every evening. They were both interesting and entertaining. I went several times. They are in St. Anna at present, from there they go to Chicago. They said that the Momence girls were like bad colds, easy to get but hard to get rid of. They also said they was like a soft-boiled potato 'easy mashed.' Momence boys were like rotten potatoes, 'not worth mashing.' I thought that was rather rough on us, don't you think so? Will close, From your old-time friend, Miss Etta Line" "Winfield, Kansas, April 18th, '89 Miss Sally Bell Keithly Dear Madam, I write to you to let you know that I have not forgotten you and let you know of my safe arrival in Kansas. I came first to visit my widowed daughter Mrs. Gidley. I enjoyed my visit very much. I had a good time while there. I drove out every day and attended one wedding. Don't you think this is a better life than I lived in Kentucky? I visited with my daughter one week then came to Kansas. I have done nothing since I came here but buggy ride and visit. I have invitations enough to last for a month at least. I think my friends look upon me somewhat as the prodigal son for they are all ready to kill the fatted calf. Now enough of this I will change to other subjects and give you a little of Oklahoma. There has never been anything like it known in the history to see the masses of people moving you would think it was going to depopulate the United States. It's a wonderful sight to behold. I am not going in with the rush, I am where I can look over in the Territory at any time sometimes, I take my gun and go out and bring in a Jack Rabbit. There is plenty of Jack Rabbits and chickens here. Would you not like to go out over the prairie in the Buggy with me and see me shoot the game? You can just bet I am having lots of fun. I went to the Salvation Army one night. I will give you the program of the way they conduct their meetings. The first I saw they commenced blowing horns then there was an old woman marched in beating the drum and another with a tambourine. Then they sang and prayed beating the drums and tambourine, then they marched out in the street carrying a large flag blowing horns beating drums and tambourine up and down the streets, then they came back to the hall and marched around the audience in the hall keeping up the music all the time. When they went on the platform and the preacher commenced preaching with the tambourine in his hand beating it all the while and the woman slapping their hands and shouting. They had a young fellow dressed in a bed jacket he acted the monkey by dancing on the platform and beating the tambourine. Don't you think you would like to go to the Salvation Army. I think I had better bring this letter to a close least I tire you…Yours truly, E.A. [Mabu]" "[Nov 1889] My Dear Sarah, If I only had you here tonight to kiss me, I would feel better. Lots of my friends and school mates have got married and are enjoying themselves why can't you and I do the same. Life is but a span my father's almost 64 years old I don't want to leave him any, more the reason I left the west. He lives all alone we could live with him. He wants me to come home and rest this winter. You and I could be welcome with him. He has 40 acres, two horses, a wagon buggy, two clots, chickens, 8 turkeys. Have you [any] objections against that? Sarah I could rent a farm in Ills where I was at. You see my father is getting old I must be around where he is once awhile, just the same I love you best of any girl in this land. I will not give you up if you stick to me…when would you like to have me come [?] I don't think I can come before December. Sarah, I have not seen William Denton yet. Harland and I have been thrashing together. Sarah, I have been broke out with boils this summer. I am some better. I am not very well. Give my respects to your father and mother, to your sisters. Also tell them to write to me you have very nice folks. Sarah, I want you to write to me soon and let me know what you will do so I will know what to depend upon. Will you Sarah, I am telling you the truth what I say Sarah I mean. I want you for my wife. I will stay by your as long as I live write soon from your best lover in the world to Miss Sarah B. Keithly…My address is Lake Village, Newton County, Indiana…" "[17 Nov 1889] My Dear Sarah, You must not think I am doing that way to fool you. I am not going to fool you if I send you $20.00 Dollars to come where I am. I will meet you at the Depo this is the cheapest way when my money is scarce. I have to make it go so far as I can you see and if you will do that way when we get to Hammond, Indiana, I will send you twenty dollars to come where I am. I will tell you how to come. Your ticket at Hillsboro to Cincinnati and from Cincinnati to Hammond, Indiana. Hamond is on the Louisville and New Albany Railroad, a through train comes from Cincinnati to Chicago right through Hammond. It would take you a day and night I expect to come through but if you get your ticket alright and your trunk checked as far as your ticket goes, it will be alright. My father and I is going to fix up his business, sell his chickens every that we can get a cent out of , awe we will do it and then go and [get] our house ready and if you want to do that way, I will send you the money and if you don't come when I send you the money and you do not come, I will consider the engagement broken and if you come I will marry you and treat as good as I can. Sarah, I mean just what I have said, is true your father said he and your mother ask to treat you well, I will be as good as I can Sarah. Write soon, give my love to your and all the family. I am your intended husband. I love you dearly Sarah. I will be a good boy hope to hear from my wife Sarah as soon as you get this. I am husking corn till December write to Lake Village, Newton Co., Indiana, good bye, by Sara, William Hisha." "Grand Island, Neb, Sunday April 12, 1890 Friend Will, I am almost ashamed to write it has been so long since I got your last letter, but we have been moving and I have been busy. I did not have time to write to anyone. We are living at Grand Island about one hundred and 25 miles south and west of Oakdale. We have gone in partnership with a man by the name of Emmons in the gardening business. We intend to plant about 40 acres of garden. We have all of our early garden planted, and most of it up. Our hot beds are nearly 100 feet long and six feet wide, covered with glass, I tell you there is a lot of work about taking care of it. I tell you. I will tell you about our moving. We moved dow2n here with teams. It took us five days to drive through with loads, there was young fellow from here came up with a team and hauled a load down for us, and a young fellow from Oakdale came down to drive the cows for us. We slept in a barn and in the tent every night that we was on the road. I tell you we had a big time coming. I went back after the second load and the fellow that drove the cows and a young fellow from Oakdale that has been attending college here went back with me. So, I had plenty of company. Then when I came down with the second load, the college student Fred Beckwith, the son of the man we are in partnership with, Louis Emmons, and a young fellow from Oakdale by the name of Hal Bow came down with me. We had a gun along with us and I tell you we had more fun then you can shake a stick at. We cooked our own grub as we came along. I will now tell you a little about our town. It has 15000 inhabitants, so you see it is a pretty good-sized place. There is a canning factory, a beet sugar factory, 2 breweries, a soap factory, harness oil factory, electric light plant and two gas factories. The city is lit up with electricity and the stores and most of the private dwelling burn gas. There are 27 saloons here and other things too numerous to mention. The town lies six miles north of the Platt River. It is a mile wide at the wagon bridge. We live one mile and a half north of the city. I bought me a team of colts just before I left Oakdale. I tell you they are fine ones. I have a colt coming 2 years old in June it is half pony a bay mare well built and my colts that I bought will not be a year old until July They are both horses and half-brothers and one of them is as large as my 2-year-old…Write soon and I'll do better next time. From your pard, P.E. Custis" "Hammond, Ind., Dec 3, 1890 Miss Sarah Keithly Dear Friend, Sarah I am in Hammond, Ind., looking for work. I can find work but can not get any house to live in. I am going home this morning. I can not write very much this time. I will tell you in a few days what I am going to do. I have three jobs on a farm, I wanted a job in a shop. I can get none at Hegewisch, Ill., at 1.50 per day in a car shop but the drinking matter is not good and it is a rough place to work up there. There is so many saloons in that place I do not want to go. I can get a nice place in Ills. with nice Christian people, good pay to these I am going to write to them to see what they will give me. Mr. Spry will give me work Sarah, I can not come right away you write to Lake Village, Ind. I will get it. I have got to see my father tonight. If I can get there, I am 50 miles away from home. We will have to wait a while before we can see each other, till I can tell what I am going to do. Good by write soon to Lake Village, Ind. From your William Hisha" "Salt Lick, Dec 27, 1890 Miss Sarah Keithly Dear Sarah, I received your letter Wednesday night. I started Thursday night from Rose Lawn, Ind. to Louisville, from there to Salt Lick I cam alone. William Denton was to come with me but I have not seen him yet. I came here because I knew the way the best. I got here at 11 o'clock in the night. I found the way all the same. I want you to get ready I will be over next week some time. I am waiting for the weather to clear up a little and for Taylor to come. Mr. Davis and I is all coming together, so tell the girls all to be there. I want to see them to our wedding, so get ready tell Jennie I think she had better get ready and come to Indiana with you and me. I am going to take you back with me. I will be there some time next week it is very hard traveling in the snow. The Sleet has broke[n] the telegraph wires down so the trains has to run by guess it is dangerous traveling now. There was a wreck that kept me waiting an hour & 20 minutes yesterday. I have my valise full of clothes. I will come as soon as I can so don't be uneasy. Mr. Davis [and] I will come. I will close from your intended husband, William Hisha."


Manuscript Diary of Frederick Hancock, early Iowa legislator and pioneer of Bentonsport, Van Buren County, Iowa, 1879-1883

By Hancock, Frederick

oblong octavo, 337 manuscript pp., entries dated 31 December 1879 to 13 April 1883; earlier 19th century burgundy calf, with gilt rules on the spine, worn at edges, tips, corners, boards scuffed and rubbed, otherwise good, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. The bulk of the diary was written by Hancock from 31 December 1879 to 13 April 1883 and amounts to a total of 296 pages. Before Hancock starts his diary, in the front, there are 11 pages with dates of accounts for 1828 to 1854, and in the rear, after Hancock finishes, there are 30 pages of accounts for the years 1844 to 1864. Presumably the front section is by members of Hancock's family and used for their bookkeeping purposes. The names of Jonathan and Mary Hancock are mentioned. The rear section also mentions Mary Hancock, as well as Frederick Hancock. At the time of this diary (1879-1883), Hancock appears to be retired from active business, although he is still much concerned with affairs and events in Bentonsport. He writes, for example, of a bridge being built over the river, a dam being repaired, and the sale of a flour mill. He observes the lives of friends and their deaths. Hancock also frequently writes of the weather, as he is an avid gardener and does some farming. He makes notes of plantings and harvests, the ice on the river destroying trestles on the bridge, etc. He also mentions seeing the Great Comet of 1882 on 14 October. Throughout the diary he writes on current events, including the assassination of President Garfield and various Republican Party election results. The diary is an interesting window into the life of a retired merchant, and Iowa pioneer, kept in the late 19th Century. Capt. Frederick Hancock (1814-1903) Captain Frederick Hancock was born in Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne county, Pennsylvania., 13 December 1814. He graduated from Wilkes-Barre Academy. At the age of 21, on the 11 October 1835, he married Anna Penrose Collins, a native of Delaware. Two years later they immigrated west, locating themselves on a farm in Washington Township, Van Buren County, Iowa, about three miles northeast of Bentonsport, and for ten years engaged in farming. In 1848, Hancock sold his farm and moved his family to Bentonsport, and there engaged in the mercantile business. While living on the farm Captain Hancock represented Van Buren County in the territorial legislature, serving in the sessions of 1844-1845. He conducted business in both Bentonsport and Vernon and owned and managed the ferry which plied between the two towns for some years. He early espoused the cause of Abolition and affiliated with the Free-Soil Party. When the Republican Party was organized, he attended its first convention, and supported Abraham Lincoln for President in 1860. During the Civil War Era, Hancock was a strong adherent of war measures for the preservation of the Union and was appointed as Assistant Quarter Master of Volunteers, with the rank of Captain in May of 1864. He was assigned for duty to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and served there until 1866, one year after the war had ended. Hancock's wife Anna, who accompanied him to the Iowa frontier, died in Bentonsport on 9 January 1863. She left him with a family of six children, four girls and two boys. Paul, the eldest enlisted early in the Civil War in 1861 in Company A, 7th Missouri Cavalry, and served his term of enlistment and was mustered out at St. Louis, Missouri in the autumn of 1864, and died while on his way home from Keokuk. Hancock's daughters grew to womanhood at Bentonsport: Fannie married Andrew Alexander and moved with him to California; Sallie married Edward A. Robinson and resided in Lowell, Massachusetts; Mary H. after the civil war was over became the wife of Lieutenant J. Sloan Keck, who was an officer in Company G, 4th Iowa Cavalry; and Pattie, the youngest daughter and Frederick, the youngest son, died unmarried. On 1 May 1873, Captain Hancock married a second time to Martha Brown, of Bentonsport. Hancock was a member of the Congregational Church for many years. He was elected to the office of Justice of the Peace in Washington Township soon after the close of the Civil War and was continuously re-elected to that office until advancing age and enfeebled health interfered with his capacity to fill the position. Capt. Hancock died at his home in Bentonsport on 3 October 1903, at the age of 88, one of the last of Iowa's territorial legislators. Bentonsport, Iowa Bentonsport, Iowa was platted in March, 1836, and was located at the first dam and locks on the Des Moines River authorized by the state in 1839. Soon it had two grist mills and a saw mill. The locality was filling up with settlers on both sides of the river and was called Benton's Port, for Thomas H. Benton, the United States Senator from Missouri. On June 21, 1837, the board of supervisors of Van Buren County granted licenses to Isaac Reed and Henry Smith to operate ferries across the river between North and South Benton's Port. Rates of ferriage were established for persons, wagon with team, horse and rider, yoke of oxen, and heads of cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and swine. Among the first arrivals at Benton's Port was John W. Burton from Kentucky who came late in 1836 and settled north of the river. Gideon Bailey from Kentucky, James McCrary from Indiana, A. H. Woods from West Virginia, and L. R. Merideth from Illinois came in 1837. Dr. Cowles, a surgeon from the East, came to practice at Benton's Port in 1838, and, with many others that year, came our diary writer Frederick Hancock, who bought land to the north; a Freeman family from Ohio and Samuel Morris from Kentucky. As work on a new dam for Bentonsport progressed in the 1850s, cement and heavy cast iron for the lock gates were hauled from Keokuk by team and steamboat. Frederick Hancock at times advanced money and materials to expedite construction. Bentonsport at one point had a population of about 1,000, but declined after the Keokuk, Fort Des Moines and Minnesota Railroad reached Des Moines in 1866. The river became non-navigable in 1870 and the dam and locks deteriorated, the dam "failed" in 1879. The Bentonsport Bridge opened in 1883 and is said to be the oldest wagon bridge of its type remaining on the Des Moines River. Today the village has 40 residents, many of them artists and bed and breakfast keepers. Sample Quotes from Diary: "1879 Dec 31. Christmas morning15˚ below zero. Moderating during the day. Coldest this winter. Yesterday 30th, heavy wind. Sam Woodriff was hung by a mob at Golden near Denver on Sunday 28th with another man named Seminole for murder of a man called Hayward. They were taken out of jail and hung in the night…" "Saturday July 2, 1881 Wind E. ther. 80 clear & fine. A report by telegraph that President Garfield was shot and killed. Subsequent news that tho' twice wounded he is not dead, but may yet live. Assassin arrested name not known." "Monday July 4, 1881 Wind S. ther. 85, Clear. President thought to be able to recover. He was shot by a crazy office seeker named Guiteau. Wife and I dined with Mary. A warm day." "Friday August 26, 1881 Wind S. ther. 80 Clear. President Garfield given up as almost dying. A gloomy feeling over the whole nation." "Tuesday, September 20, 1881 Wind N.E. ther. 65, Foggy. The President died last night at 10:30 at Long Branch, N.J. after being shot on July 2 last by that scoundrel Guiteau. The Nation universally mourns his loss. Wife gone to Farmington." "Saturday October 14, 1882 Wind S. ther. 55, clear. This morning before day I saw the great Comet in the East. The grandest sight. It seemed 10 feet long, funnel shaped and brilliant. Wrote Mr. Colton at Green, R.I. Elections in Ohio went against the Republicans. They lost 3 or 4 members of H.R. in Congress." "Saturday November 18, 1882 Wind N.W. ther. 45, cloudy. Moon 1st ¼ 3:58 A.M. Our Congregational Church having been repaired and cleaned by our brethren the Adventists, will be opened this morning for service. Our own society can use it on Sundays and by this arrangement we are now ready to receive a pastor when the Lord sends one. It has been without a preacher for 11 or 12 years." "Tuesday December 5, 1882 Wind N.E. ther. 40. Snowing, about 2 inches of snow fell during the day, almost turning to rain…Tomorrow is to happen the great Transit of Venus, which will not happen again for 130 years." "Wednesday December 6, 1882 Wind N.W. ther. 10, clearing, but not clear. A snow storm began and continued, so we had no Transit of Venus in Bentonsport. About 4 inches of snow fell and at night it turned colder." "Monday December 11, 1882 Wind S.E. ther 5 above 0. Clear. A soft pleasant day. There is discouragement about the new dam. It leaks, so that now the mill cannot be run & the river is unnecessarily low." "Tuesday January 2, 1883 Wind N.W. ther. 4 below 0. Clear. At the town elections yesterday, the old council was voted out for misconduct. Wife went to Farmington." "Friday February 16, 1883 Wind E. ther. 60, raining last night about 10 o'clock began a storm of thunder lightning & heavy rain and continued all night. The cellar is flooded. River rising rapidly, a gloomy outlook. Ice almost ready to go out. Mark Thatcher and old Seltler in Vernon Town is to be buried today. About 1 ½ o'clock the ice moved out without apparent damage to the dam, wrecking the trestles of iron work at the Bridge. Lanora Middleton, Alice Catters, and Kate Fulton girls raised here ran off last night to Ottumwa. Kate was reached by telegraph and brot back. In the P.M. a change came and before dark every thing was frozen hard and we were put back to winter." "Wednesday March 21, 1883 Wind N.W. ther. 30 clear & cold. Work has again begun on the Bridge, preparing to put on the iron. Has been a clear cold day. I walked up to see Mary and had a pleasant visit." "Thursday March 29, 1883 Wind NE, ther. 35, cloudy. Still cool & disagreeable. Flour Mill sold to Warren Scott for $3400." "Tuesday April 10, 1883 Wind S. ther. 65 cloudy. Planted cucumbers & melons, parsnips. At 5 P.M. wind strong in N.W. & cold. Also planted a young apple tree south of the stable."


Autograph Letter Signed, Logansport [Miamiport], Indiana, September 5, 1834 to Payne Pettibone, Jr., Kingston, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

By Bird, Ochnig

Profiteering from the Indian trade in Indiana – Pennsylvania emigrant's letter, 1834. folio, two pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, in very good, clean and legible condition. Ochnig Bird, then 21 years old had just moved from Pennsylvania to Indiana, traveling a thousand miles, having seen "a grate many places", some "quite sickly", but was now in "a first rate place for merchandising… on the Wabash River where the Indiana and Erie Canal is progressing." He had been working on the Canal as an Engineer, but hoped to convince Pettibone to come join him as a business partner, to "speculate in Trade or in Land, there is a going to be some first rate lands sold here soon and those who have the Change, have the first opportunity, and the Trade from the Indians is Good in this Country. The Miami Indians… draw from Government every year $ 25,000 which all comes around threw the hands of the Merchants for Goods at a double profit… The Indians "- of the Miami and Pottawattomi tribes are as thick as white men here … and the way merchants make Change out of them is a caution." Both Bird and his friend, Pettibone, went on to achieve success in life, but not as business partners. Pettibone remained in Pennsylvania as partner in his father-in-law's store; he went on to become a railroad executive and industrialist. Bird remained in Indiana, working as engineer and railroad builder in Fort Wayne, then going into politics; he served in the state legislature before and after the Civil War, when, as a Democratic State Senator, he refused to vote for the amendment to the US Constitution giving freed slaves the right to vote.


Autograph Letter Signed, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, March 15, 1836, to his sister, Mary Louisa Locke, New Ipswich, New Hampshire

By Locke, J.[ames W.]

quarto, two pages, plus stamp-less address leaf, in very good, clean condition. Locke writes: "… in case I get any money, for I am distressingly short just now … I have provided myself with a ticket for the Roxbury Lyceum course of lectures [which] began last evening. Introductory by Mr. Webster on popular education. It was a very good one but the views were not sound. He attributed the general increase of popular knowledge to the application of science… and to general use of labor saving machines or rather, as he called them, Labordoing machines, which by doing up the work afford much time for the improvement of the mind. He then went on to state that the more of these things the better and advocate the encouragement of monopolies and corporations for the purpose of carrying on all sorts of Business, manufactures and machinery operations – Now that is just the trouble with his whig principles. The poor man forgot to mention that in England the land of monopolies and of corporations and of capital and of Laboring machines, the poorer laboring classes are in a far less agreeable situation than the same are with us. How ignorant and degraded are they in comparison to ours. Poor man, he forgot that in the land where his favorite system is in the fullest operation, there its effect, which sounds so well in theory, in practice has a most unfavorable effect. Webster knows better than to stick so closely to the miserable English system of Political Economy, He does it all to compliment the Boston people…" Little is known about the astute 21 year-old writer, whose life was sadly short. Born in Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, he came to Massachusetts to care for a farm owned by his family. Less than ten years later, he died, in Arkansas at age 29. As for Daniel Webster, his 1836 speech at Roxbury may have been a rehearsal for an address he delivered two years later on the floor of the United States Senate in which he lauded Massachusetts as the most "highly civilized society" on earth, with the greatest "equality in the condition of men", all of whom might be called "aristocrats". He also praised science for "creating millions of laborers in the form of machines, all but automatic", surely one of the earliest American tribute to automation in the era of the British Luddites.


Manuscript Diary of Pvt. John M. Lovejoy, of Roseboom, Otsego County, New York, kept while serving in Co. G, 121st Regiment New York Volunteers, 1864-1865

By Lovejoy, John M.

12mo pocket diary, 192 manuscript pages of diary entries, plus 36 pp. of miscellaneous notes and cash accounts; entries dated 1 December 1864 to 25 May 1865; 6 July to 12 July 1865; 22 July 1865; and 17 October 1865 to 24 October 1865, bound in original limp leather with flap, one day entry per page format; binding worn and scuffed, entries written in ink, in a legible hand. The entries for December 1864 are written in the section for December 1865; part of the miscellaneous pages are accounts dated from 1882, unclear if they are Lovejoy's notes, or not. The front inside flyleaf is inscribed "Private John M. Lovejoy / Co. G. 121st Regt. N.Y.S. Vols. / His Diary for 1865 / Purchased at Cooperstown / November 17th 1864 / Cost $0.80 at Ruggels." Pvt. John M. Lovejoy (1843- aft 1880) John M. Lovejoy (1843- aft 1880) was born in Roseboom, New York on 25 May 1843, the son of Andrew Lovejoy (1790-1850) and Sally (1805 – aft 1880) of Roseboom, Otsego County, New York—some 50 miles west of Albany, not far from Cooperstown. He attended school until he was 16 years old (1859), then went on a farm to work. During the Civil War, Lovejoy left the farm and enlisted as a private on 7 August 1862 at Roseboom, to serve three years in Co. G, 121st New York Volunteers. Company G was principally recruited from Herkimer, Herkimer County; Cherry Valley, Lovejoy's hometown of Roseboom, Decatur, Middlefield, Westford, and Worcester, all of Otsego County. According to enlistment records, John stood 5 feet 7½ tall, had red hair and blue eyes. He was a farmer by occupation. Lovejoy was mustered in on 23 August 1862. John's older brother Allen Lovejoy (1839 - aft 1905) mustered into Co. G, 121st New York Volunteers at the same time as his brother. John was transferred to Co. C, 22nd Regiment Veterans Reserve Corps in January 1865. He mustered out of military service on 3 July 1865 at Cleveland, Ohio. Within a month of mustering in, John M. Lovejoy was being held in reserve in the fields below South Mountain while the battle thundered through the peaceful valley. When his regiment moved on to Antietam, John and his brother, Allen, were placed on hospital duty in Burkittsville, and remained there for over three months. It is said that John M. Lovejoy performed splendid service with his regiment at Winchester, Fisher Hill, and Cedar Creek; was wounded at Charleston, 21 August 1864, sent to Baltimore, Maryland and was soon after transferred to Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia; while in Philadelphia he received a furlough for twenty days. He returned to his regiment 25 December 1864 was promoted to corporal and acted as Color Guard to the regiment until 25 June 1865 when he was discharged from military service at Hall's Hill, Virginia. John and his brother Allen both survived the war, and both witnessed the surrender at Appomattox Courthouse in April 1865 Lovejoy returned to Roseboom after the war, returned to farming, married Cynthia Allen, of Roseboom, had two children, but he never fully recovered from the effects of his wound, and in 1870 left the farm and went into general agency business; at one time being found as a painter. He applied for an invalid pension in 1879. He joined Upton Post (G.A.R.) at South Valley as charter member; served as Adjutant for seven years and Quartermaster two years. He was a Justice of the Peace for ten years at South Valley, New York. In 1900, his wife Cynthia, applied for a widow's pension, thus Lovejoy would have died sometime between the 1892 NY State Census and the 1900 U.S. Census. Brief History of the 121st Regiment Infantry "Orange and Herkimer Regiment" Organized at Herkimer and mustered in August 13, 1862. Left New York for Washington, D.C., September 2, 1862. Attached to 2nd Brigade, 1st Division, 6th Army Corps, Army of the Potomac and Army of the Shenandoah, to June, 1865. SERVICE.--Maryland Campaign September 6-22, 1862. Duty at Sharpsburg, Md., until October 30. Movement to Falmouth, Va., October 30-November 19. Battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 12-15. At Falmouth until April, 1863. "Mud March," January 20-24. Chancellorsville Campaign April 27-May 6. Operations at Franklin's Crossing April 29-May 2. Battle of Maryes Heights, Fredericksburg, May 3. Salem Heights May 3-4. Banks' Ford May 4. Gettysburg (Pa.) Campaign June 14-July 24. Battle of Gettysburg July 2-4. Pursuit of Lee to Manassas Gap, Va., July 5-24. Duty on line of the Rappahannock and Rapidan until October. Bristoe Campaign October 9-22. Advance to line of the Rappahannock November 7-8. Rappahannock Station November 7. Mine Run Campaign November 26-December 2. Campaign from the Rapidan to the James May 3-June 15, 1864. Battles of the Wilderness May 5-7; Spottsylvania May 8-12; Spottsylvania Court House May 12-21. Assault on the Salient, "Bloody Angle," May 12. North Anna River May 23-26. On line of the Pamunkey May 26-28. Totopotomoy May 28-31. Cold Harbor June 1-12. Before Petersburg June 17-18. Siege of Petersburg to July 9. Jerusalem Plank Road June 22-23. Moved to Washington, D.C., July 9-11. Repulse of Early's attack on Fort Stevens and the Northern Defenses of Washington July 11-12. Expedition to Snicker's Gap July 14-23. Sheridan's Shenandoah Valley Campaign August 7-November 28. Near Charleston August 21-22. Battle of Winchester September 19. Fisher's Hill September 22. Mt. Jackson September 23-24. Battle of Cedar Creek October 19. Duty in the Shenandoah Valley until December. Moved to Petersburg, Va., December 9-12. Siege of Petersburg December 12, 1864, to April 2, 1865. Dabney's Mills, Hatcher's Run, February 5-7, 1865. Appomattox Campaign March 28-April 9. Assault on and fall of Petersburg April 2. Sailor's Creek April 6. Appomattox Court House April 9. Surrender of Lee and his army. At Farmville and Burkesville until April 23. March to Danville April 23-27 and duty there until May 24. March to Richmond, thence to Washington, D.C., May 24-June 3. Corps Review June 8. Mustered out June 25, 1865. Veterans and Recruits transferred to 65th New York Infantry. Regiment lost during service 14 Officers and 212 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 4 Officers and 117 Enlisted men by disease. Total 347. Sample Quotes from the Diary: "March 29, 1865 Cloudy and dusty. Was in camp all day. Sailsberg and Croward are on picket. It is reported the 2nd and 5th Corps have moved. The 25th A Corps is said to have moved post here today. Heavy firing has been heard on the left in direction of Hatcher's Run. There will soon be hot work. We are all packed up but to strike tents with orders to be ready to move at a moment's notice. Lt. Frank Piper returned to day from leave of absence. Some of the 51 Ny Eng. have moved…" "March 30, 1865 Last night about midnight it began to rain and continued until this afternoon. This evening it has cleared off. However, terrible heavy firing of mortar and artillery was kept up last night some time in the front of Petersburg. The long roll was sounded in camp and all was astir. According to all accounts a regular stamped was got up on the picket line last night. There was been hard fighting on the left today. Reported that Sheridan has the south side R.R. 'Nothing Official'…all quiet now." "March 31, 1865 Rainy in the A.M. Cleared up during the day. Windy this evening. Last night at 10 we packed up and struck tents hard orders to charge (4 Corps at daylight). Orders was countermanded at about 1 o'clock and we pitched tents again. The Regt went out to support the picket line at 3 o'clock. Guards not relieved been packed up all day and arms stacked. Trains ready and teams harnessed, still we do not go and I hope we will not. We are ready. We have no news from the two days fighting on the left." "April 1, 1865 Weather pleasant. Had orders to prepare for sundry inspection, some artillery firing on the left today Tonight the teams are harnessed and stores all loaded I think and attack is expected tonight. I think they will find a few Yankee if they come. God be with us and be our guard and support. Bought a paper .10 cts. Candles .25 cts Rec'd two mails…I hope all will be quiet tonight. Gold help our army." "April 2, 1865 Pleasant at daylight. This morning we charged the Rebels in front of Ft. Fisher and broke their entire line. Then we went to the support of the 9th Corps and have lain all the P.M. in the mud in the Rebels works taken by the 9th Corps this morning. A great victory today." "April 3, 1865 Pleasant all day. At 2 o'clock this morning we began at one line and skirmished into Petersburg and soon the city was full of Union soldiers. Lee is in full retreat, went to camp and got our knapsacks and then marched until 10 o'clock at night. I am very tired." "April 4, 1865 Pleasant but warm. Marched hard all day, passed through a place called Berksville. Had the orders read that the City of Richmond was occupied by our troops yesterday morning. Thank God for Victory. We may expect hard marching now." "April 5, 1865 Pleasant quite cool this evening. Marched all day, halted at noon & drew a day and a half rations to night we are one mile from the Danville R.R. 42 miles from Richmond. Reports are that the Rebels are entrenched on our right. If so, we will have work tomorrow." "April 6, 1865 Rainy in the A.M. Clear in the P.M. moved back to the rear about three miles and then advanced and crossed the R.R…Gen'l McKenzie marched hard all day. I fell out at 2 o'clock. Excused by Maj. At about 4 o'clock the old 6th became engaged, a hard fight and splendid Victory. A Croward, J. Sherman, & G. Shay was killed. D. Lowell and Corpl Eldret was wounded." "April 7, 1865 Rainy part of the day. Began our march at 8 this morning and marched hard all day. Heard fight ahead of us. Halted for the night at 11 o'clock. Near Farmersville. Drew rations of whiskey today. Head the 123rd Ohio Regt was all taken prisoners. I feel sorry…" "April 8, 1865 Pleasant all day. Marched all day and till 10 o'clock. Tonight. We are now at or near New Store, Bartholomew Co., VA. Drew 3 days rations & have orders to make them last us 6 days. I think we will have hard times we have marched 15 miles today. Saw where about 200 Rebel wagons have been burned. Bought 20 cts of sugar." "April 9, 1865 Pleasant marched about 12 miles to near Clover Hill Church. Halted at 4 P.M. and Gen'l Lee at 5 P.M. surrendered his army to Gen'l Geo. G. Meade." "April 10, 1865 Rainy part of the day. Lay still all day & have had quite a rest. We are to move back tomorrow to form a base. Sent out mail. Wrote to mother, cousin Alzina Allen, and to brother Allen."


Civil War Diary of Pvt. Willoughby H. Doering, of Carryall, Paulding Co., Ohio, kept while serving in with Co. C, 68th Ohio Infantry Regiment, 1861-1863

By Doering, Willoughby H.

12mo pocket diary, 366 manuscript pages, with 26 pages of memoranda and cash accounts; dated 25 November 1861 to 14 January 1863; pocket diary for full year of 1862 plus partial dates for 1861 and 1863; bound in limp leather with flap, three days entries per page; diary is used for the year 1862; however, our author also uses the memoranda and cash accounts section at rear as pages for the 1861 and 1863 entries, which are dated 25 November to 31 December 1861 and 1 January to 14 January 1863; entries written mostly in pencil, some ink, in a legible hand; very faintly inside front board is inscribed "W.H. Doering." A check of the roster for Company C shows that our diarist is Willoughby H. Doering. A good war-date Union soldier's diary kept by Pvt. Willoughby H. Doering, Co. C, 68th Ohio Vols. covering Doering's time in service from November 25, 1861 through January 13, 1863. The time period when he kept this diary, Doering was a private. During the time covered in this diary, the 68th Ohio headed to the front from Camp Chase, Ohio, to help capture Fort Donelson, besiege Corinth and Iuka, and went to Mississippi to help to protect Grant's supply base at Holly Spring. Capt. Willoughby H. Doering (1837-1878) Willoughby H. Doering was born about 1837, the son of Joseph Doering (1810-1870) and his wife Eliza Huffman (1813-1886). Joseph Doering was originally from Pennsylvania and moved west to Ohio. In 1847, the Doering's left Miami County, Ohio and moved to Paulding County, Ohio, where the canal craze was taking place. The family were considered pioneers in the area and Joseph Doering is found as a farmer at Carryall, Paulding, Ohio, in 1850 and 1860. After the death of Joseph Doering, his son George appears to have taken over the farm in 1870, while Willoughby married and moved out. On 3 August 1856, at Fort Wayne, Indiana, Willoughby married Margaret Saylor and they had two children (Charles Adrian and Eliza Catherine). His first wife died, and he was married a second time to Merica Hill on 15 April 1866 in Paulding County, Ohio. With his second wife he also had two children (Callie I. and Maggie Alice). Before the war, Willoughby was a farmer in Carryall, Ohio, living with his wife and children. When the Civil War begun, Pvt. Willoughby H. Doering enlisted with Company C on 7 November 1861, at Camp Latty, Napoleon, Ohio. He mustered into service for 3 years on 13 December 1861. He entered military service as a private and was appointed 1st Sergeant on 16 December 1863. He was later promoted to 1st Lieutenant on 26 November 1864 and to Captain 11 January 1865. He mustered out with his company on 10 July 1865. Doering's brother, Pvt. Matthias S. Doering, served with the 132nd Ohio Infantry during the Civil War, and died of pneumonia in June 1864. After his military service, Willoughby worked for a hub and spoke company, and along with others he was building a dam to repair a lock on the canal, the dam broke, water rushed through, he was stuck underwater and drowned. He was 41 years old and left a widow and four children. He was buried in Riverside Cemetery, Antwerp, Paulding Co., Ohio. 68th Regiment Infantry The Regiment was organized at Camp Latty, Napoleon, October to December, 1861. Moved to Camp Chase, Ohio, January 21, 1862, thence ordered to Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 7, Attached to 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Military District of Cairo, February, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee, to May, 1862. 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1863. Unattached, District of Jackson, Tenn., to November, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, Right Wing 13th Army Corps, Dept. of the Tennessee, to December, 1862. 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, 17th Army Corps, Army of the Tennessee, to July, 1865. SERVICE.--Investment and capture of Fort Donelson, Tenn., February 12-16, 1862. Expedition toward Purdy and operations about Crump's Landing March 9-14. Battle of Shiloh April 6-7. Advance on and siege of Corinth, Miss., April 29-May 30. March to Purdy, thence to Bolivar, and duty there until September. March to Iuka, Miss., September 1-19. Battle of the Hatchie or Metamora October 5. Grant's Central Mississippi Campaign, operations on the Mississippi Central Railroad, November 2, 1862, to January 10, 1863. Reconnaissance from LaGrange November 8-9, 1862. Moved to Memphis, Tenn., January 20, 1863, thence to Lake Providence, La., February 22. Moved to Milliken's Bend April 10. Movement on Bruinsburg and turning Grand Gulf April 25-30. Battle of Port Gibson May 1. Forty Hills and Hankinson's Ferry May 3-4. Battle of Raymond May 12. Jackson May 14. Battle of Champion's Hill May 16. Siege of Vicksburg May 18-July 4. Surrender of Vicksburg July 4, and duty there until February, 1864. Expedition to Monroe, La., August 20-September 2, 1863. Expedition to Canton October 14-20. Bogue Chitto Creek October 17. Meridian Campaign February 3-March 2, 1864. Morton February 10. Veterans absent on furlough February 20-May 8. Moved to Cairo, Ill., May 7-8, thence to Clifton, Tenn., and march via Pulaski, Huntsville and Decatur, Ala., to Rome and Ackworth, Ga., May 12-June 9. Atlanta (Ga.) Campaign June-9-September 8. Operations about Marietta and against Kenesaw Mountain June 10-July 2. Assault on Kenesaw June 27. Nickajack Creak July 2-5. Chattahoochie River July 5-17. Howell's Ferry July 5. Leggett's or Bald Hill July 20-21. Battle of Atlanta July 22. Siege of Atlanta July 22-August 25. Flank movement on Jonesboro August 25-30. Battle of Jonesboro August 31-September 1. Lovejoy Station September 2-6. Jonesboro September 5. Operations in North Georgia and North Alabama against Hood September 29-November 3. March to the sea November 15-December 10. Siege of Savannah December 10-21. Campaign of the Carolinas January to April, 1865. Pocotaligo, S.C., January 14. Salkehatchie Swamps February 2-5. Barker's Mills, Whippy Swamp, February 2. Binnaker's Bridge, South Edisto River, February 9. Orangeburg, North Edisto River, February 12-13. Columbia February 16-17. Battle of Bentonville, N. C., March 20-21. Occupation of Goldsboro March 24. Advance on Raleigh April 10-14. Occupation of Raleigh April 14. Bennett's House April 26. Surrender of Johnston and his army. March to Washington, D.C., via Richmond, Va., April 29-May 20. Grand Review May 24. Moved to Louisville, Ky., June 1, and duty there until July. Mustered out July 10, 1865. Regiment lost during service 2 Officers and 48 Enlisted men killed and mortally wounded and 1 Officer and 249 Enlisted men by disease. Total 300. Sample Quotes from the Diary: "Nov. 25, 1861. Company C organized on the 25 day of Nov. I enlisted on the 7th day of October. We left Antwerp on the 26th of Nov in the night at 2 o'c. Arrived at Camp Latty November 26th at 7 o'c. in the morning. I went back on furlough on the 28th day of Nov. Returned to camp on the 4th day of Dec. in the morning…" "Dec. 25th 1861. Well today was Christmas and we had a very good time. We had a picnic by the citizens of Florida. Our company was treated just the same as was the company from that place. The company that were treated by them were marched out on the bank and there cheered by them and in return we cheered them twice and all us sung to them the song of the 68th Regiment…" "Dec. 31 1861. We have had dress parade every day with exception of one since I last wrote. Yesterday we had a court-marshal of several men for the offense of immoral conduct. I will give the manner of punishment when informed of the same…" "Jan. 25, 1862. This morning Joseph Longbery received his offices and I was appointed his stead. A new regiment just came in. The boys had a jolly time breaking through guard." "Jan. 26, 1862. 10 o'c. A.M. we have just been out on parade. After parade we had a prayer by the Chaplain. H. McCann pulled off his stripes today." "Jan. 30, 1862. Today I was down to town. Had a good time. Was in the state prison. There were about 1000 prisoners. Was in the state house, was also in the museum…" "Feb. 8, 1862. This morning the ground is frozen and we have had a good drill this morning. The Col. told us to be ready to march at an hour's notice. Ben Shirley's cousin cam in camp." "Feb. 12, 1862. Last night we went up the Tennessee river intending to go to Fort Henry but we turned back…" "Feb. 13, 1862. This morning we are running up the C.B. our fleet No. 17 boats including gun boats, 5 in No." "Feb. 14, 1862. This morning we landed on the south side of the Cumberland Bever, moved up to within a half mile of the battleground and there deplored as guards." "Feb. 15, 1862. This morning at sunrise a severe battle commenced, lasted about three hours, a great many killed and wounded, same commanding all day, another heavy battle this evening." "Feb. 16, 1862. This morning we eat and started for the battlefield, got half way, was informed of the surrender. Marched up in to the battlefield, saw many strange things." "Feb. 18, 1862. Today I have been in the tent all day. I am still sick. The regt is camped on a hill south of the town. Several of the boys have the measles. I am in a small tent on the flat." "Feb. 20, 1862. Today, Sargent Nasan was detailed with 30 men to unload boats. Boys think that the rations captured at this place made them sick." "Feb. 22, 1862. This morning is again raining…three darkeys came into camp. We hired one to cook. He borrowed Peeper's rubber [blanket]. Went out to get eggs never returned." "Mar. 27, 1862. Today the weather is nice. Clear. Buried 2 men, one private Co. I, one private Co. A. They were buried with honors of war. G. Wm. Forder is stil sick. I have been cooking for two days." "Apr. 1, 1862. Today we heard cannonading up the Tennessee river. The weather is still very warm. Today we had a company in the forenoon and Battalion drill in the afternoon." "Apr. 3, 1862. This mo9rning we were informed of the death of a private of Col. H. Got orders today to be ready in the morning at 8 o'c. to start to a review" "Apr. 5, 1862. Today the weather is clear and warm. This morning had a skirmish up the R. Our brigade was all ordered out except the OI Regt. But returned in the evening without learning any news." "Apr. 6, 1862. This morning when we arose we heard the firing of infantry and soon after commenced the old canon to talk some, 12 o'c. and still fighting." "Apr. 7, 1862. Last night a continual firing was kept up by our gunboats and this morning the battle commenced as vigorously as the day before. It is now 10 o'c. P.M. and they are still fighting as hard as ever. 3 o'c the enemy has commenced retreating." "Apr. 8 Yesterday evening at 4 o'c. the firing had ceased or got out of hearing. Lieut. Col. Came in camp from the battle ground reported the enemy on full retreat. This morning there is heavy canonading up the river." "Apr. 23, 1862. This morning we formed in line of Battle at ½ past 3 o'c. and stood till day light, our pickets had a small skirmish with the Rebel cavalry this morning. Weather warm and clear, had Co. inspection." "May 11, 1862. Weather nice report of a battle on the left wing near Corinth, commencing yesterday, heavy cannonading this morning, it is almost time for inspection which will be at 9 A.M. Dress parade and divine service." "May 25, 1862. Weather clear and warm. Had inspection this morning. Lieut Banks very sick. No comm officer able to take charge of Co. 8 men from each co detailed to build bridges and make roads." "June 16, 1862. Today I was over in the town at Bolivar all day had stripes put on my coat sleeves. Wm. Anderson was put in guard house for wearing drawers." June 23, 1862. Two cavalry men shot by secesh citizens. Cavalry went out again and caught four of the chaps." "July 4, 1862. This morning everything and weather nice and warm. Raised two flags and fired 34 rounds with cannon. Had a speech by Col. of the 53rd Ind." "July 13, 1862. This morning we started after some cotton with 44 wagons got 130 bales cotton and 6 loads of corn. Then returned to camp. During the night the regiment out to capture some cotton burners." "July 14, 1862. Today our teams again went out after cotton. Teams returned with 160 bails cotton." "July 19, 1862. Lieut Col. came back today having commission as Col. Pickets drove in, soldiers got into line of battle in great haste." "July 23, 1862. Rained very hard last night. Co. C was taken 1/2 mile beyond the picket to lay in ambush for some guerrillas." "Aug. 30, 1862. A brisk skirmish took place this morn between the Rebels and part of the 2nd Ill. Cavalry, 9th Ind Battery, 20 and 78 Ohio Infantry. Lost 2 Co's. out of 20th OVI. Call up Ill Cavalry." "Sept. 1, 18962. Another skirmish at Merdan Station today. Loss heavy on the Rebels side, small on Federal side. Loss Rebels killed 117. Federals killed 9. wounded not known." "Sept. 2, 1862. This morn Co. C out. It were ordered into Fort Fry. We are hourly expecting an attack by the enemy. One of the canon is pointed towards the court house." Sept. 19, 1862. This morning finds us camping on the road to Bernsville. Had a skirmish but found only five rebels. Took them prisoners. This even we marched within three miles of Iuka. Camped for the night." Oct. 5, 1862. This morn soon as we had eat our breakfast we were formed into line and moved forward. The artillery opened fire and we were rushed into battle which lasted about six hours." Oct. 6, 1862. This morn we are still on the battlefield. I went to the river to [get] some water. Saw several of the dead. Crossed over the river. About 5 P.M. started for Bolivar with prisoners."


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