[Madrid]: Gabriel Ramirez, 28th March, 1768. 8 pages (11 x 8 1/8 inches). Woodcut arms on the title-page. Bound in modern plain paper wrappers. A Royal decree attempting to regulate commerce between Spain and her new territory of Louisiana, by excluding all commerce with France and her colonies. Spain had secretly acquired Louisiana from France at the Treaty of Fontainebleau on 3rd November 1762, which followed the Battle of Signal Hill, the last battle in the French and Indian War which had decisively confirmed British control of Canada. Meanwhile the Seven Years War continued to rage, and having already lost Canada to Britain, King Louis XV of France proposed to King Charles III of Spain that France should give Spain "the country known as Louisiana, as well as New Orleans and the island in which the city is situated" to keep it from falling into British hands. In fact the agreement covered all of "Louisiana": the entire valley of the Mississippi River, from the Appalachians to the Rockies. The Treaty of Paris finally ended the war with Britain, and divided Louisiana at the Mississippi: the eastern half was ceded to Britain, while the western half and New Orleans were nominally retained by France; Spain ceded Florida to Britain, and western Louisiana became Spanish by way of compensation. One condition of the Treaty of Paris provided for a period of 18 months in which French Canadian colonists who did not want to live under British rule could freely emigrate to other French colonies. Inevitably many of these emigrants moved to Louisiana, where they were horrified to discover that had become Spanish, a fact which did not become formally known until 1764 when Louis XV informed the governor, Charles Philippe Aubry, in a letter. Understandably the French colonists in Louisiana were reluctant to accept Spanish governance, and after the Spanish attempted to control commerce with this decree, which excluded all commerce with France and her colonies, they expelled the first Spanish governor and famous navigator Antonio Ulloa, in the Rebellion of 1768 that followed. Alejandro O'Reilly (an Irish émigré) suppressed the rebellion and formally raised the Spanish flag in 1769. In 1800 the territory was retroceded to France under Napoleon, together with six warships, in exchange for the Kingdom of Etruria, (which Charles IV of Spain presented to his nephew the Duke of Parma), who in 1803 sold it to the United States. Palau 251076; Streeter I 147.
A special order item has limited availability and the seller may source this title from another supplier. In this event, there may be a slight delay in shipping and possible variation in description. Our 30-Day return guarantee still applies.
Bookseller Completion Rate
Biblio is a marketplace for book collectors comprised of thousands of independent, professional booksellers, located all over the world, who list their books for sale online so that customers like you can find them! When you place your order through Biblio, the seller will ship it directly to you.
Bookseller Completion Rate
This reflects the percentage of orders the seller has received and filled. Stars are assigned as follows:
Inventory on Biblio is continually updated, but because much of our booksellers' inventory is uncommon or even one-of-a-kind, stock-outs do happen from time to time. If for any reason your order is not available to ship, an email notice will be sent right away and any charges promptly voided/refunded.
Our site-wide, 30 day return/refund policy guarantees that the items you order will be as described. If any return is due to an error on the seller’s part, you will receive a full refund.
Since 2005, Biblio has donated over $1 million to fund literacy and educational projects that benefit children in impoverished communities of South America. Through BiblioWorks, a 501(c)3 non-profit, we have built 12 community libraries, trained hundreds of teachers and librarians and changed the lives of tens of thousands of underprivileged children.
Every time you purchase a book on Biblio, you are supporting our mission of improving literacy and education at home and abroad. And, if you want to give a little more, be sure to choose to "Round up for Reading" when making your purchase, which will allow you to round up your purchase by a small amount - all of which will go directly to BiblioWorks. To learn about BiblioWorks and to find out more ways you can help promote literacy and education abroad, click here.
Thank you for helping Biblio spread the joys of reading and learning to those in need!